'2012 Federal Issues 

This page was started in 2011 as a way of taking notes on the issues while I was running for the House of Representatives. 
Results of California 2nd district House of Representatives race (Wiki), FEC.
When I see something interesting I add it to this web page.

1. Your ability to improve or fix something is limited by how well you understand how it works.
2. Everybody, without exception, holds false beliefs.

The key message when I ran for the House of Representatives in 2012 was that electing either a Democrat or Republican would result in no change in Wall street or War policy.
Bernie Sanders is the only candidate with any possibility of making a change.
If you are happy with how Obama fulfilled his campaign promises then vote for Hillary.
If you are happy with Bush43 vote for the Republican candidate.
If you want a change vote for Bernie, even if that means writing his name on the ballot.

The lesser of evils is still evil.

    The Newsroom & Truth and Duty
    Progress & Science
Democrats the same as Republicans on the big issues
China and the One Party System
Laws are the Cause of Many Problems
    Trade Agreements
Law breaking is another source of problems
Office of the President
    No Choice
Supreme Court
California "Top Two" primary
Electoral College
The Problem of Authoritarian Followers
    Milgram Experiment
        Teen Pregnancy
        U.S. Children living in poverty
        Making Sex Normal
End War in all it's forms
        Presidential Pardons
        California Master Plan
        Possible Solution
        John Gatto
        Gadwell - Andrews ideas
        Student Loans
    The Economy
        Modern Monetary Theory - Reality vs. PolicyKey Years - Tax Implications - Textbook
        Falsification of neoliberal economics
        Andrew Yang for President 2020
        MMT References
            Warren Mosler
            L. Randal Wray
Frank Newman
Mathew Forstater
Wynne Godley  
Michael Hudson           
Bill Mitchell        
Scott Fullwiler
Stephanie Kelton
Bernie Sanders & reform of the Federal Reserve
Steve Keen
      Abba P. Lerner
            Paul Romer
            Mark Blyth
           John Quiggin
           Dean Baker             
           Raghuram Rajan
           Ann Pettifor
            Thomas Frank
            Predicted the Global Financial Crisis
            Other MMT References
        Effect of Interest Rates on Home Values
      Gold Standard
            Nixon Shock
            Global Capital Flows
                    Global Finance
      The Global Minotaur
        Monetary Theory
            Killing the Host & Seven Deadly Innocent Frauds of Economic Policy
    Capitalism - It's OK but can be a lot better
    The Laffer Curve & Voodoo Economics
    Adam Smith vs. John Nash -> Capitalism 2.0
   Trump Election Upset
        Russian Connection
            2016 June 9 - Trump Tower Meeting
          2016 August 2 - Havana Club Meeting
            2017 January 11 & 12 - Seychelles meeting
    Health Care
        USGS Menlo Park & Climate Change
        Books related to Climate Change
    Marijuana, LSD & Ecstasy
    The use of Money in Politics
    Human Rights
    Right to Vote
    Diet and Nutrition

7 Key Ideas .pdf

Nov 1, 2015
YouTube - Left Out : Beyond the Two-Party Horse Race - "Noam Chomsky" - Clip - also see
Lefties by Mark Foire 

2012 Rocky Anderson for President & the Justice Party

Note: a vote for a Republican or Democrat is for sure a wasted vote.  See: Democrats the same as Republicans on the big issues


Here are a couple of key concepts:
1. The Republicans and Democrats are in agreement when it comes to supporting big business and war.  They only differ on a few other issues.  So if you want reform in how business works or our war policy do not vote for either of them.

2. The bad outcomes we are experiencing (for example we pay the most for our medical care yet the quality of that care is ranked much lower than other countries) are the direct result of policy decisions we have already made.  The outcomes are not random.

The Newsroom

This is a good summary of where we are as of 2012.

The Newsroom Season 1: Episode 1 - Full Episode
The Newsroom may be based on some of the ideas related to the book and movie about Dan Rather's (Will McAvoy) 60 Minutes II story on George Bush's National Guard produced by Mary Mapes (MacKenzie (Mac) McHale).  The ACN (CBS) network owned by Atlantis World Media (Viacom (Wiki)) and the owners want to be friendly with the Republican administration because decisions made by the government had a strong influence on their profits.  The news was not particularly easy on the government.

Movie: Truth (Netflix, IMDB) - The story of the Mary Mapes production about Bush43's National Guard (non) stint.  This incident caused Dan Rather to step down from doing the news.
YouTube Oct 2015 - Dan Rather: ‘Truth’ Is Less About Me Than ‘What’s Happened To The News’ | TODAY - "The story about Bush43 was true!" 

Book: Truth & Duty: The Press, the President, and the Privilege of Power by Mary Mapes 2005
Mary Mapes (Wiki) is the producer of a number of stories presented by Dan Rather (Wiki) on 60 minutes (Wiki) and/or 60 minutes Wednesday (Wiki).  She won a Peabody award for breaking the Abu Ghraib (Wiki) prison torture story.  She makes a very convincing case that her 60 minutes II story is true.
In the book a web page truthandduty.com is mentioned, but today (21 Feb 2016) it is directed to some other web site.


Sort of like the Saturday Night Live opening sketch of Obama's first 100 days has been scrubbed from the web (Huffpost - SNL Vs. Obama: Sketch Details All The President's Failures Since Taking Office (VIDEO) - The article remains (even has VIDEO in title, but the video has been scrubbed. The actor portraying Obama says: "There are those on the right who are angry. They think that I'm turning this great country into something that resembles the Soviet Union or Nazi Germany, but that's just not the case. Because when you look at my record it's very clear what I've done so far and that is nothing. Nada. Almost one year and nothing to show for it."  PS If you have a copy of that SNL sketch please contact me.
2016: Found this rebuttal that has some of the footage:
YouTube: CNN Fact-Checks SNL's Spoof on Obama - here is the video Season 35, 2009 with Fred Armisen- skit not listed on Wiki for season 35
DVD on order:  Saturday Night Live SNL 35th Season Best of '09/'10 - has Betty White, but NOT the Spoof on Obama's first year of doing nothing, zip, zilch Nope.
Here it is: snl Obama nothing


U.S.S.R. 1960s

While learning about the problems we face in a number of places I've seen a strong parallel between where we are now (2012) and the U.S.S.R. in the 1960s.  When I was working in Silicon Valley in the 1960 - 1980 time frame it was a common saying that the difference between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. was that in the U.S. a business can fail, but in the U.S.S.R. that does not happen.  That can no longer be said of the U.S.  Here are some points to consider:

Progress & Science

I put this paragraph on a web page about politics because we currently have a misconception about many aspects of how society can be best governed and they need to be replaced by better misconceptions (in the sense that the new one works better than the old one).

It turns out that for almost all of humanity's existence the life of children was pretty much the same as their parents.  That's to say there was no progress.  Here I'm talking about progress as any of the measures of well being.  The change came about because of the scientific method which I'd say started with Copernicus (Wiki) around 1514 when he told some friends about his heliocentric hypothesis (Wiki).   It was almost 100 years later when Galliello (Wiki) had visual evidence that it was true and the Bible was wrong.  The problem with dogmatic religious belief is that it must be accepted as truth with no possibility of improvement, which means no progress.  Most practical religions do not act as if their "book" is factual and so society can improve even when some of it is made up of practical religious people.

So, rather that believe in an absolute truth, society advanced by using the scientific method.  But there continues to be a question about what 'science' really is.  In my opinion the key difference between science and religion is that in science there are no facts, only conjectures.  For example you might talk about Newton's misconception of gravity or Einstein's misconception of relativity this allows a misconception to be falsified and be replaced by a better misconception (in the sense that the newest misconception is the best description of all the experimental evidence).

Example 1
In the late 1970 through 2000 a new misconception of economic theory emerged that looked to be better than the post depression misconceptions and this new theory was tried out, but it failed, but today we have not replaced the failed economic theory.  But we could.  One of the key ideas on this web page is that many of the misfortunes we experience are the direct result of laws we have passed.  There needs to be a better mechanism to remove the bad laws (see below).  In science when a new theory (misconception) is adapted as the current one projections are made and tested to try an falsify it.  In a similar way new laws might contain some metrics as to how well they are working so they could be reviewed after a few years to see if they should remain.

Example 2
The supreme court (see below) made a number of bad decisions such as Citizens United v. FEC (Wiki), Bush v. Gore (Wiki), Shelby County v. Holder (Wiki), and many others that have tarnished the reputation of the supreme court.  For most cases pretty much everyone knows how each justice will vote based on their political bias.  This could change if more impartial judges were appointed. 

Example 3
The two party system.  It's not part of the constitution, which provides only for the election of congressmen and the president.  The inability of Congress to act on many issues and the 2016 presidential elections where the voters are clearly not happy with either party demonstrate that the current misconception of how a representative democracy should work is false.  We can learn a lot be looking at how the rest of the world holds elections and their multi party system.

Most of the paragraphs on this web page could be reworded in such a way as to demonstrate that the current way many things are being done is based on false ideas and need fundamental change.  But that would take something like constitutional congress made up of intelligent fair minded people, an unlikely event.

Books about how science works:

The Fabric of Reality by David Deutsch 1997 -4  key areas: quantum physics, epistemology, theory of computation, theory of evolution
The Beginning of Infinity: Explanations That Transform the World by David Deutsch 1998 - amplifies and develops the 4 key areas
Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge by Karl Popper 1963 -
The Myth of the Framework: In defense of science and rationality by Karl Popper 1994 -

Democrats the same as Republicans on the big issues

I'm running for the House of Representatives mainly as a public service to let people know about the major problems we face and point out that there's hope if  the voters will stop doing the wrong thing, that's to say don't vote for any Democrat or Republican.
2016 -  For many of the past presidential elections we've been voting for the lesser of two candidates, i.e. voting against the less evil candidate.  For the first time in decades there may be a candidate to vote for . . . Bernie.
The lesser of evils is still evil.

Feb 2013 - Reading "The Parties versus the People" by Mickey Edwards, ISBN: 978-0-300-18456-3 as part of the description of the problem he has a quote from Gilbert & Sullivan's H.M.S. Pinafore:

"always voted at my party's call,
and never thought of thinking for myself at all."
This is by far the biggest problem where the voters have the power to make a real change.

Expecting a Republican candidate to do a bad thing because it was a campaign promise is like expecting a Democrat to do a good thing because it was a campaign promise.  Neither will happen.  They will both do what the money and their party tells them to do.

Rita Mae Brown in her book Sudden Death on Pg. 68 from 1983.
"Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again but expecting different results."

The Democrats and Republicans have the same position about war, the economy, health care, justice, environment . . . .     Obama is a good case in point, he is out Bushing the prior president.

In the 2012 2nd district Congressional race there are a number of Democrats saying things that the people want to hear, and they may even believe it themselves, but once in office they must follow their party line.  Even if they got elected without much or any help from their party, if they don't follow the party line they will be replaced by their party at the next election.  This is called "Primarying" (Wiktionary).  Lawrence Lessig (see: Money  below) points out that the primary is where people with money select which candidates they want to see on the November ballot.  This is where attack ads get a candidate removed.

Those candidates who have accumulated many times the salary of a Congressman are trying to be a career politician and want to be reelected over and over so will follow their party line even if that means NOT following what they said in the campaign.

It's clear the people want single payer health care (and it's the only viable solution), yet the two front running Democrats are already saying they will support Obama Care rather than saying they will support Single Payer Health Care.  Many of the candidates say they will support Democrat or Republican Values and then mention Right to Choose or Gay Rights, i.e. their only "values" are these issues.  But as the two front runners have demonstrated they have no values when it comes to the big issues, they are good party members and will follow the party line.  This reminds me of the U.S.S.R in the 1960s.

The two parties vote on party lines, not because of PAC or SuperPAC money, but because of the higher dollar value support they get from their respective national committees.  This shows up in Congressional votes that block bills and nothing gets done.

Note that virtually all the money spent lobbying goes to the campaign committee for that Congressman, it does not go into his or her personal pocket.  The money is then used for TV spots, mailings, yard signs, etc. for the next election.  This means it will take a real grass roots movement (not the astro turf tea party) to make a real change.
2016 June 27 - this has changed.  In the old days it was a crime if someone who was in a official position accepted a bribe.  When I was working there were rules saying we could not give gifts to someone who we were trying to influence.  But the supreme court has ruled that money is free speech in McDonnell v. United States (SCOTUSblog, Wiki).  Now it's OK to give the bribe as long as no one can prove the receipt gave an "official act" in return.

For an independent to make a change it's not necessary to have a majority.  Instead only a few votes are required to give a whole new complexion to Congress.  A very small number of independent votes can make all the difference in getting a bill passed or blocked.  This forces both parties to come up with good bills and court the independent votes.

Constructing Public Opinion: How Politicians and the Media Misrepresent the Public a documentary by Media Education Fund (6 min YouTube, small format full length preview)
based on the book: Constructing Public Opinion: How Political Elites Do What They Like and Why We Seem to go Along With It by Justin Lewis (2001)

They also produced: Hijacking Catastrophe: 9/11, Fear & the Selling of American Empire (Wiki) (2004 DVD)

This is a MUST watch video interview.
PBS - Bill Moyers Journal - WEB EXCLUSIVE: Glenn Greenwald - Transcript
Salon.com - Glenn Greenwald - With Liberty and Justice for Some (Book)

The Democrats and Republicans are now to the far right and so the party names no longer have meaning.
Lefties by Mark Foire

The Young TurksBill Maher: Democrats Are the New Republicans

Rachel Maddow - Goofy gun conspiracy surfaces in Congressional action

21 May 2012 - there seems to be a rash of "Values" press releases.  For example: Obama coming out for Gay marriage.  This is an example of the Democrats and Republicans making an issue of the one thing they differ on.  The media is lapping it up and NOT reporting on how they agree on: the defense budget, the economy, health care, the environment, justice, etc.

It turns out that while the constitution does not setup the two party system, the electoral college (Wiki) system does.  Because of this it's virtually impossible for a third party candidate to become president.  This is why in the 2016 primary the two anti establishment candidates, Sanders & Trump, are running inside the two party system.  So the idea behind naming this web page End 2 Party Government is really not workable.  A more correct approach would be reform 2 parties.
FEC: The Electoral College by William C. Kimberling, Deputy Director FEC Office of Election Administration, May 1992 - a history explaining the concerns and their solution.  The idea of the winner not having a majority vote was done on purpose to result in a president more able to govern more states rather than a population center.

China and the One Party System

This TED Talk clearly shows that the idea of all countries moving to a democratic from of government is false.  What the U.S. and much of the world needs to be doing is fixing our political problems.

Eric X. Li: A tale of two political systems (TED, YouTube)

Laws are the Cause of Many Problems

Many of the problems that we have were caused by politicians in the sense that they authored laws now on the books that were a mistake.
See the authoritarian section for Prison and Teen Pregnancy.

Since 2008 there has been no improvement and in fact it's getting worse.  Obama's JOBS Act of 2012 (the Wall St. boiler room full employment act) and the good parts of Dodd-Frank have not been implemented on schedule. There's talk of new laws to further gut Glass-Steagall and counteract the good parts of Dodd-Frank.

All lawmakers are human and therefore make mistakes in the form of bad laws.  It's not that they set out to make bad laws.
But, there's no provision to get the bad laws off the books.  A very few laws have expiration dates.

Good Laws that worked

Bad Laws

The vast majority of the problem we face are caused by bad laws we passed.  The problems are not random like the weather, but unintended consequences (Wiki) of things we put in motion.

--------------------------- Thomas Jefferson (Wiki) 1801 - 1809 -------------------
-----------------------James Buchanan  1857 - 1861 (Wiki) -------------------------
---------------------------  Abraham Lincoln (Wiki) 1861–1865 ------------------- Civil War
---------------------------- Andrew Johnson  (Wiki) 1865 - 1869 ----------------------

------------------------- Chester A. Arthur  1881 - 1885 -----------------
-------------------- Woodrow Wilson 1913 - 1921 ---------------------
---------------------- Calvin Coolidge 1872 - 1933 (Wiki) ----------------------------------
---------------------- Franklin D. Roosevelt   1933 - 1945 (Wiki) ---------------------------
-------------------- Harry S. Truman 1945 - 1953 ------------------------
--------------------------Lyndon Johnson 1963 - 1969 ---------------------
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (Wiki) - this is an example of a well meaning government making laws with unintended consequences.  The final version was No Child Left Behind (Wiki: NCLB) - both of these resulted in the schools "teaching the test" (Wiki) and turning out students that could not think or reason. Common Core (Wiki) is the latest version of "teaching the test". also see: Surely you're joking Mr. Feynman!  page 211 "In regard to education in Brazil. . . . ."  "the students had memorized everything but they didn't know what anything meant."
    As a direct result of NCLB the vocational education programs were terminated.  That's because NCLB required teaching college transfer subjects.  As of 2016 there is a growing shortage of skilled trade workers such as nurses, auto mechanics, all of the building trades, &Etc.
    Wiki:  Vocational education in the United States, Smith–Hughes Act of 1917,
    Movie: Where to Invade Next 2015 Michael Moore (Wiki) - Finland: education policy = short school day, minimal homework, let kids play, Slovenia: debt-free/tuition-free higher education (some US students enrolled and happy).
  • Truth In Lending Act of 1968 (Wiki) - allows the Federal Reserve Board ability to regulate financial agreements, Dodd-Frank transferred that authority to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (Wiki).
    ---------------------------1969 - 1974 Richard Nixon ------------------------
  • Powell Memorandum 1971 (Wiki) - Just prior to be appointed to the Supremes by Nixon, Powell wrote a memo outlining how business should get everything they could from government.  A business response to Ralph Nader (Wiki).  His book Unsafe At Any Speed (Wiki) came out in 1965.   This is an infamous thing and there are many books about it. (YouTube)

    ------------------------- Gerald Ford 1974- 1977 ------------------------------
  • ----------------------------- Jimmy Carter 1977 - 1981 -----------------------------
    ---------------------------------Bill Clinton 1993 - 2001----------------- (In my opinion passed more Republican laws than any president in history) ----------
  • 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (Wiki) - Republican bill passed by Clinton causing 3 assistant secretaries at the Department of Health and Human Services to quit in protest.  This law put an additional 1 million children into poverty and did nothing to help anyone.  ".. insistence that people would not be poor if only they would try harder defines the thinking behind the signature welfare restructuring law of the Clinton era.." (WashingtonPost Mar 8 2017)
  • Congressional Review Act (Wiki) - allows new incoming party to overturn a law passed by the prior administration if done within 60 days.  In 2017 it's the favorite of Donald Trump.
  • Telecommunications Act of 1996  (Wiki) - spurred on Mergers, takeovers and acquisitions consolidating the media into a few hands, removed regulations from the 1934 telecom act. - ...removed many of the restrictions on access and, in fact, mandated the opening up of networks. While this is a good thing for an array of reasons, it did result in certain complications, one of which is the barrier to gain access to SS7 was dramatically lowered, so a security threat (CSRIC)
  • Federal Direct Student Loan Program 1997 (Wiki) - privatized the student loan program where the goal was profit rather than helping students. (YouTube: How College Loans Got So Evil)
  • 1998 National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Wiki: NCCAM) - Woo-woo organization that has spent $20 Billion and has not one positive result.
  • Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act aka Financial Services Modernization Act of 1999 (Wiki) - started "too big to fail" and removed the separation between investment and commercial banks (repealed Glass-Steagall).  $300 million was spent lobbying congress for this.  The merger of Citibank & Travelers Insurance was a crime that was put on the sidelines while GLB was passed to allow it to be legal.
    S900 Vote: Senate (Boxer & Feinstein:No), House (Thompson: FOR, Woolsey: No)
  • Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000 (Wiki) - source of the Enron Loophole (Wiki) and enabled "credit default swaps", turned the commodity market into a gambling den (& prohibited states using their gambling laws to regulate it) where the price of food and oil among other things is now the result of banks gambling rather than supply and demand. Deregulates derivatives. The Financial Crisis Inquiry Report (Wiki, Commission) lists this law as causing one of the problems leading to the Global Financial Crisis (Wiki).  The GFC was caused, it did not happen randomly (See Problems above and MMT below).
  • 1998, 1999 & 2000 Bill Clinton (Wiki) ran a budget surplus (equivalent to a private sector debt) see MMT/Key Years for forecasts of the Global Financial Crisis (Wiki) as a direct result of this.
  • Attempt to Privatize Social Security Oct 1997 - This was derailed by the Monica Lewinsky affair.  It's documented in the book: The Pact: Bill Clinton, Newt Gingrich, and the Rivalry That Defined a Generation, Steven Gillon, resident historian of the History Channel and a professor of history at the University of Oklahoma.  The Atlantic - How Democrats Killed Their Populist Soul -books: Listen, Liberal: Or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? - 2016,by Thomas Frank - The Pact: Bill Clinton, Newt Gingrich, and the Rivalry That Defined a Generation, Steven Gillon,
  •  -----------------------------------George W. Bush 2001 - 2009----------------------------------------
  • FCC Cable Modem Declaratory Ruling of 2002 (FCC 02-77). Poor decision by FCC removing cable delivery of internet from Communications Act of 1934 Title II regulation.
  • Sarbanes–Oxley Act (2002) (Wiki) - is an attempt to outlaw cooking the books like in the case of Enron, but it uses the SEC as it's enforcement agent and we've already seen that the SEC works to prevent Wall St. from going to prison, not bringing charges against them.
  • Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Wiki) - a huge tax gift to utility companies see: The Fine Print by David Cay Johnston
  • FCC Wireline Broadband Order of 2005. Poor decision by FCC removing telephone (DSL)  internet delivery from Communications Act of 1934 Title II regulation.
  • Protect America Act of 2007 (Wiki) - removed the warrant requirement for government surveillance of foreign intelligence targets "reasonably believed" to be outside of the United States.
  • FISA Amendments Act of 2008 reauthorized many provisions of the Protect America Act in Title VII of FISA. This violates the constitution.
  • Higher Education Opportunity Act - 2008 (Dept of Ed) - prohibits the Education Department from defining or setting standards of student achievement that accreditors must apply to the colleges they oversee.  Thanks to Lamar Alexander (R) (Wiki) in the Bush43 administration - read the linked Wiki page for illegal and unethical activity - This provision relates to $5 Billion that goes to for profit colleges
  • Ownership Society (Wiki) - pressured Fannie May (Wiki), Freddy Mac (Wiki) & Federal Housing Administration (Wiki) to make loans to poor people, something banks would rather not do on their own.
    -------------------------------------Barack Obama 2009 - 2017 ---------------------------------
  • CARD act of 2009 (Wiki) - "..does not include price controls, rate caps, or fee settings."   Truth in Lending Act of 1968 (above),forbes: CARD Act may have cost consumers billions, Feb 21, 2012
  • Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act 2010 (Wiki) does not come close to restoring the checks and balances needed.  In fact Title IX, Subtitle B, Section 929 (Wiki) repeals the Freedom Of Information Act reporting requirement from the SEC allowing them to hide information to prevent prosecuting Wall Street criminals.  It's part of the Obama 'Opaque' government plan.  Note that the SEC already is working to protect (not regulate) Wall Street because of Regulatory Capture (Wiki).
    There were some good parts to Dodd-Frank, but they are being undermined, see good laws above
    History will show DC District Court has drawn the wrong conclusions on Dodd-Frank section 1504 4th July 2013
    This article holds out the hope that the SEC will proceed to fix the problem, but we already know the job of the SEC is to insure the profitability of Wall St and keep people who work there out of jail. 
    How Wall Street Killed Financial Reform -By Matt Taibbi May 10, 2012
  • Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act (JOBS) of 2012 (Wiki) - "...this law actually appears to have been specifically written to encourage fraud in the stock markets. (Matt Taibbi, No. 2 it's Obama's bill) maybe better called The Wall Street Boiler Room full employment Act.
    Mike Thompson (old 1st district) voted FOR this.
    http://www.govtrack.us/congress/votes/112-2012/h132  <- Check to see how your Representative voted
    Boxer and Feinstein voted No.
    http://maplight.org/us-congress/bill/112-hr-3606/1049703/contributions-by-vote <- Check to see how your Senator voted
  • Uniform Prudent Investor Act (Wiki) - repeals the prudent man idea - passed on a state by state basis.

  • FTC Act (Wiki) of 1980 15 USC § 46 - Additional powers of Commission (cornell.edu) - "Nothing in this section (other than the provisions of clause (c) and clause (d)) shall apply to the business of insurance, except that the Commission shall have authority to conduct studies and prepare reports relating to the business of insurance. The Commission may exercise such authority only upon receiving a request which is agreed to by a majority of the members of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate or the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives. The authority to conduct any such study shall expire at the end of the Congress during which the request for such study was made. "  another example of regulatory capture (Wiki).
  • Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (aka: Obama Care) (Wiki) - Leahy and Conyers tried to tack on a provision that would make it illegal for health or medical malpractice insurers to fix prices, rig bids for contracts, or divide up markets among themselves, but this provision was removed.  (PBS: Obama's Deal)
  • No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 (Wiki) - teachers need to game the system and teach the test rather than teaching subjects.
  • Three Strikes Laws (by each state) (Wiki) - If you have a couple of criminal convictions and live in a 3 Strikes state (Wiki) you should move to a state that does not have the draconian law.  That's because if you are convicted of spitting on the sidewalk you'll go to prison for a very long time.
  • Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (Wiki) - prohibits Medicare from negotiating drug prices.  Came to a vote at 3 am 22 Nov while some congressmen were on Thanksgiving break. This is one reason the U.S. has the highest prices for drugs in the world.
  • Defense of Marriage Act (Wiki: DOMA) - Article 4 of the U.S. Constitution leaves all things not specifically granted to the federal government to the states.  Marriage is one of those things that's solely a states right. HR3396 Vote: House, Senate
  • Protect America Act of 2007 (Wiki) - allows for warrantless wiretapping in the U.S. - debasing the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 & violating the constitution.
  • Civil Forfeiture (Wiki, ACLU) - S.1701 -- Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act of 1999 - although introduced with good intentions it has resulted in police departments using it to flat out rob people of their possessions - Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Civil Forfeiture - The New Yorker: Taken - Not sure if this is part of our being a banana republic (Wiki) or police state (Wiki).
    --------------------------------------- Trump  2017 - 2020 ----------------------------

    Trade Agreements

    Trade agreements such as WTO (Wiki: Criticism), NAFTA (Wiki: Disputes and controversies) and TPP (Wiki: Criticism) have an overall benefit to the countries that sign them, but at a cost.  "Overall" means positive outcomes minus negative outcomes.  One of the negative outcomes is the permanent loss of jobs and businesses in all the countries that sign the agreement.  The bulk of the job loss is related to "productivity improvement" (i.e. automation).

    Now (Aug 2016) the TPP has in addition other problems (don't know about WTO and NAFTA).   Some details:
    18.82 Requires ISPs to take down sites without a court order
    18.78 Criminalizes whistle-blowers who expose corporate wrongdoing
    18.63 Exports the worst parts of US copyright law - without mandating Fair Use
    18.68 Makes it illegal to unlock, modify, or tinker with a device you own
    9.ISDS Gives companies the right to sue governments for not protecting their IP
    Fundamentally the TPP allows business what I would call an unfair advantage.  For example see the WTO criticism link above.

    Also note the these agreements to not take into account the ideas of Modern Monetary Theory.


    The political system is corrupt, not completely in the legal sense that people are liable to fines and/or jail time, although there's plenty of that which is not even being brought to trial, to the point that it's spreading.  For example the Fat Leonard scandal of the U.S. 7th Fleet (Wiki) where over 30 admirals are under investigation starting in 2013 and the investigation is ongoing.  I suspect that the admirals are seeing Washington as corrupt and so don't feel bad about following along.  Note that most of the hundreds of millions that are used to bribe congressmen goes into some tax exempt status rather than into the congressman's pocket and so is legally not a bribe.  But the effect is the same.  The funders have control not the voters.  See Lawrence Lessig Money in Politics below.

    Instead of our leaders being examples to follow they are acting as bad examples.

    Transparency International - Corruption Perceptions Index 2017 :US #16 - March 2018 US #16

    Law breaking is another source of problems

    The thing that's allowed this to work is that the people who enforce the law have quit enforcing against the top 1%.  Regulatory capture (Wiki) means that the agencies who are tasked to regulate are now working to protect the industry from criminal prosecution.
    March 2015 YouTube: SEC's Andrew Bowden at Stanford – A Regulator for Sale? - sad

    2014 - Eric Holder worked to NOT criminally prosecute any of his Wall St. cronies while the local police put people in prison at an all time high rate.
    See the book The Divide: American Injustice in the Age of the Wealth Gap by Matt Taibbi

    The Scam Wall Street Learned From the Mafia by Matt Taibbi June 21, 2012 - bid rigging for municipal bonds.
    Note: the insurance business is exempt from the Sherman Antitrust Act (Wiki) and so it's legal for them to do this.

    Why Bankers Don't Go to Jail: Taibbi Visits with Bill Moyers - February 4, 2013

    Bill Moyers Journal - William K. Black - Video interview, transcript (William K. Black TEDx talk)
    The Best Way to Rob a Bank is to Own One: How Corporate Executives and Politicians Looted the S&L Industry by William K. Black
    In the movie Where to Invade Next (Wiki) there is a segment on how Iceland prosecuted bankers (Wiki) with the help of someone from the U.S. and put 20 people in jail.  Correcting for the population difference the U.S. should have put away about 20,000 people, but only one (with a Muslim name) was sent to jail.
    If the president and members of Congress take an oath to up hold the U.S. Constitution and they do things that are clearly in violation like is now happening then can they be impeached for failing to uphold their oath?


    Over the past 30 years the Constitution has been subverted and is no longer operational on many levels.  This is the number one thing that needs to be fixed.  Without it all the rest will be meaningless.  I think a Constitutional amendment is needed to get away from the corruption that Lawrence Lessig talks about (see his talk: Congress), although there is a chance that election finance reform can be done on a state by state basis.  A possible answer is if many states enact election finance reform that limits campaign contributions so that they can only come from voters registered to vote for them and with a dollar limit on each of those.  That would eliminate contributions for people who were not voters, i.e. eliminate a dependency that is not to the people who vote.

    In the paper Testing Theories of American Politics: Elites, Interest Groups, and Average Citizens by Martin Gilens and Benjamin I. Page they make the case that the average citizen has no voice in their government. 
    "Multivariate analysis indicates that economic elites and organized groups representing business interests have substantial independent impacts on U.S. government policy, while average citizens and mass-based interest groups have little or no independent influence. The results provide substantial support for theories of Economic-Elite Domination and for theories of Biased Pluralism, but not for theories of Majoritarian Electoral Democracy or Majoritarian Pluralism."
    Gilens and Page have a book: Democracy in America? What has gone wrong and what we can do about it 2017 -
    This is a key paper referenced in Lawrence Lessig's book, but the problem is much larger. For example see 2011 January 8 - New Yorker: Alexander Hamilton Speaks Out (III): Two Senators Per State, Regardless of Population? - the electoral college and the Senate are not at all representative of the people.

    See Congress for more on structural problems.


    TEDxMileHighSalon - Michael Huemer - The Irrationality of Politics


    Office of the President

    No Choice in elections

    For a number of decades there really was not a president to vote FOR, rather there was the choice between the lesser of two evils.  It seems the party in power (not really the man who is president) does something to cause the country to change political parties.  The problem is that both parties agree on the big issues: the economy & war; so changing parties does not bring about the change the voters want to see.
    2016 - Both Democrats and Republicans are fed up with the establishment and there's strong popular support for Bernie and Donald.  Bernie is popular with college students (maybe because they have considered his positions) and Donald is popular with many Republicans that are also also tired of the establishment politicians.


    Kennedy (D)
    Nixon (R)
    Kennedy offered hope, poor prior (R) economy

    Johnson (D)
    Goldwater (R)
    Kennedy was popular, no party change, Goldwater was seen as a war monger

    Nixon (R)
    Humphrey (D)
    Johnson's Vietnam policies unpopular, change party & anti New Deal (Wiki), (R) Southern Strategy (Wiki)

    Nixon (R)
    McGovern (D)
    good economy, relations with China improved, no party change

    Carter (D)
    Ford (R)
    Watergate Nixon quits, change party

    Reagan (R) Carter (D)
    economy in big trouble, Reganomics (Wiki),stagflation (Wiki) change party

    Reagan (R)
    Mondale (D)
    economy OK, no party change

    GHW Bush (R)
    Dukakis (D)
    economy struggling, no party change, Willie Horton negative TV ad (Wiki) & start of tough on crime
    B Clinton (D)
    GHW Bush (R)
    problem economy & taxes, change party
    Clinton adapted Republican Financial ideas because the Republicans got money from business and they got none.  So the Democrats now get money from Wall St. and Republicans from other businesses. 
    B Clinton (D)
    Dole (R)
    economy doing well,  no party change
    See Bad Laws above
    GW Bush (R)
    Gore (D)
    Clinton sex scandal (Wiki), Supreme Court decision on Florida vote count (Wiki)

    GW Bush (R)
    Kerry (D)
    Post 9/11 (Wiki) no change in party even though the 2003 invasion of Iraq (Wiki) had no basis

    Obama (D)
    McCain (R)
    Bush very unpopular, the (R) over reaction to 9/11 caused a change in party.  Obama offered "change", but did not deliver.

    Obama (D)
    Romney (R)
    hope continues, but Obama has not delivered on most of his promises.
    Obama & Romney agree on war in debate No. 3 (YouTube)

    Sanders or Clinton (D)?
    Trump (R)
    Sanders & Trump are both anti establishment & neither is endorsed by their political party.
    Trump's win was a surprise.
    Key factors: Jobs (See below) & Clinton being an establishment candidate,
    while Trump was NOT a politician and clearly anti establishment.
    The Office of the President has much more power than the Constitution allows.  In some cases this has happened by presidential directive and in others (like war powers) was given away by the Congress.  The Department of Justice (Wiki: DOJ) has become a branch of the White House (index0811.html#SEC) and no longer enforces the law.

    The 2012 National Defense Authorization Act
    (Wiki) is just the latest example of the office of the president taking on powers that are in violation of the Constitution and international law.
    Wiki: Hedges v. Obama - Challenge to the NDDA - YouTube interview with Chris Hedges - repeals the protection of the Posse Comitatus Act (Wiki)

    Supreme Court

    2018 The Kavanaugh Hearings (Wiki) demonstrate that the GOP has politicized the Supreme Court.  Republicans campaigned saying they would overturn Roe v. Wade, i.e. they made the selection of a Supreme Court justice a political issue. 

    Obama went to the ABA for his list of candidates, Trump went to the Heritage Foundation (Wiki).  Maybe, like re-districting, this type of decision should be taken out of the hands of politicians, but that would require a change to Article II Section 2:
    "He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments."
    It is very interesting that the ACLU has come out against Kavanaugh. Something they have only done a handful of times in the past 98 years:
    https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2018/09/29/aclu-typically-stays-quiet-about-supreme-court-nominees-it-didnt-with-kavanaugh/ - “We oppose him in light of the credible allegations of sexual assault against him,”

    2006 Samuel A. Alito Jr. - “expansive view of executive authority” and decisions he has written on race, religion and reproductive rights. 1987 Robert H. Bork 1971 William H. Rehnquist 1991 ACLU remained neutral on the nomination of Justice Clarence Thomas...But its Southern California chapter broke ranks with the national organization and opposed Thomas’s nomination, citing the judge’s positions on affirmative action and school prayer.

    Restrain Yourself by Mark Foire (2:31)

    United States of John Roberts by Mark Foire (1:39)

    The Supreme Court (Wiki) has lost sight of fairness and needs to be over-ruled by Congress.  Note the U.S. Constitution (Wiki) defines the powers of the federal government: Congress (A1), the President (A2), the Courts (A3) and all powers not so defined are left to the States (A4).

    2019 January 27 - NYT: The Trump Administration Is Making a Mockery of the Supreme Court - (BC: this is very dangerous.)

    Corporate Personhood

    In Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission 558 U.S. 08- (2010) (Wiki) the court ruled that the First Amendment prohibited the government from restricting political expenditures by corporations and unions.  The idea of corporate personhood (Wiki)

    In Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad 118 U.S. 394 (1886) (Wiki) - Thom Hartman has pointed out that the ruling had nothing to do with corporate personhood, that was an idea wrongfully put into the case summary by a clerk.  Note the actual decision was OK, it's just that the wrong summation has become the basis of the current law.  Thom claims it's also the reason that the supreme court threw out the Kasky v. Nike, Inc. (Wiki) case because they knew that the case would reopen the meaning of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad.

    Corporations can not be sued for torture and “extrajudicial killing” (can you say assassination?) that's just for people
    Mohamad, et al., v. Palestinian Authority, et al
    . (docket 11-88)
    Bowoto, et al., v. Chevron Corp., et al. [docket 10-1536]
    Kiobel, et al., v. Royal Dutch Petroleum, et al. (10-1491)
    Opinion analysis: Anti-torture law given narrow scope (UPDATED)
    I guess that means Blackwater (Wiki) mercenaries are individually responsible but not their employer.
    Young Turks - Witchcraft More Popular Than Citizens United -

    Voter Photo ID

    In Crawford v. Marion County Election Board, 553 U.S. 181 (2008) (Wiki) the supreme court upheld a 2005 Indiana law requiring all voters casting a ballot in person to present a United States or Indiana photo ID.   Note the U.S. Constitution does not contain a "right to vote" clause. 

    Equal Protection Clause

    In Bush vs. Gore  531 U.S. 98 (2000) (Wiki) the Court ruled that the Florida Supreme Court's method for recounting ballots was a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment (Wiki).

    Commerce Clause

    The Commerce Clause (Wiki) of the U.S. Constitution (A1, S8, C3) reads:
    [The Congress shall have Power] To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes;
    Commerce means trade, not manufacturing, retail sales etc. and only commerce (trade) between foreign nations and the U.S. or between states or between states and Indian tribes.

    In Gibbons v. Ogden 22 U.S. 1  (1824) (Wiki) - The court (I think unfairly) concluded that Congressional power over commerce should extend to all aspects that "significantly affected" interstate commerce.  This opened the door to more abuse of the Constitution.

    In Wickard v. Filburn 317 U.S. 111 (1942) (Wiki) - Mr. Filburn was growing wheat on his own land for consumption by his farm animals, none of it was sold anywhere.  The court ruled that the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 (a United States federal law of the New Deal era which restricted agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land) (Wiki) applied to him using the commerce clause as the basis of the decision. That's to say it would force him to buy some of the wheat he needed.  In my opinion this was a huge mistake and should be repealed.

    In United States v. Lopez 514 U.S. 549 (1995) (Wiki) - The court ruled that the federal Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990 (Wiki), part of the Crime Control Act of 1990 (Wiki), was unconstitutional based on the commerce clause.  I think this was the correct decision but is not consistent with Wickard v. Filburn.

    In Gonzales v. Raich  545 U.S. 1 (2005) (Wiki) - Raich grew and consumed California legal marijuana in her home.  The court ruled that, based on the commerce clause, she was guilty of a violation of the federal Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (Wiki). I think this was a wrong decision, there was no interstate commerce and this is a states right.

    There have been a few Individual Mandates (Wiki) by the U.S. government. 

    The first was the Militia Acts of 1792 (Wiki) would have required every "free able-bodied white male citizen" between the ages of 18 and 45, with a few occupational exceptions, to "provide himself" a military type weapon and ammunition.  It was not legally tested in the courts.

    The second is contained in the mandate to pay income tax which was found unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1895 because it was a direct tax not apportioned according to the population of each state.  Income tax became legal after passage of the 16th amendment to the Constitution (Wiki) in 1913.

    The third Individual Mandate (Wiki) is contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Wiki: Obama Care) of 2010 due to go into effect in 2014 but in the court now (2012).
    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, 11-393 (2012) (Wiki, SCOTUSblog)
    Department of Health and Human Service v. Florida, 11-398 (2012) (Wiki, SCOTUSblog)
    Florida v. United States Department of Health and Human Services (Wiki, SCOTUSblog)
    SCOTUS for law students: Health-care litigation -
    Right to Privacy (Liberty)
    Griswold v. Connecticut
    (Wiki) - establishes a right to privacy based on
    self-incrimination clause of the Fifth Amendment, the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.  It was cited in Roe v. Wade (Wiki).  Also see: Justice Stevens and the so-called right to privacy


    Buck v. Bell (Wiki) - a state statute permitting compulsory sterilization of the unfit, including the intellectually disabled, "for the protection and health of the state" did not violate the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The decision was largely seen as an endorsement of negative eugenics—the attempt to improve the human race by eliminating "defectives" from the gene pool.
    The Supreme Court has never expressly overturned Buck v. Bell.

    The epistemology of science put forward by Karl Popper (Wiki) contains the idea that incremental improvements are the key to progress.  So there needs to be a mechanism to unambiguously renounce bad decisions such as the ones above.


    The Department of Justice (Wiki) and the U.S. Attorney General (Wiki) are supposed to prosecute criminals.  But this is not longer the case for the top 1% and businesses.
    In 2007 Alberto Gonzales (Wiki) supported the Bush43 administration rather than the constitution and eventually resigned.
    In 2007 (after two interim AGs) Michael Mukasey (Wiki) continues to support Bush43 instead of the constitution.
    In 2009 under Obama Eric Holder (Wiki) not only supports the continuation of the Bush43 polices, but the "Holder Memo" (DOJ) is used as the basis of stopping prosecution of Wall St. criminals.
    With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful 2012 by Glenn Greenwald - how the holder memo was used to protect Wall St, while people using small amounts of pot were sent to prison (not jail) for many years.
    YouTube: Modern Money & Public Purpose 7: Financial Reform - about the criminal actions taken by Wall St. and how the DOJ stopped prosecutions.


    There are two branches of Congress. 

    The Senate where the members serve six year terms.  There are two Senators from each state.  The idea is to give each state an equal vote at the federal level. An interesting observation is that whenever I have contacted my Senators neither of them ever responded, except a recent answer from D. Feinstien saying she backed giving the NSA more power to spy on U.S. citizens.  Although she's clearly in the pocket of the people feeding her money, at least she is now aware that she can't continue to totally ignore those who can vote her out of office.

    The House of Representatives was supposed to have one member for each 30,000 people, but when it grew to 435 members the Constitution was changed locking the number at 435.  Note:  If the population of the U.S. is about 300 million then we should have 10,000 Representative.  But as it is each Representative has about 700,000 voters in their district.  There's no way that they can represent such a large group of people.  Note:  Every 10 years when a new census comes out the 435 districts get redrawn.  In most states this is a chance for that state's legislature to gerrymander (Wiki) the boundaries so that the political party in power will get the most votes.
    The book:  Rat F**ked why your vote doesn't count by David Daley, 2017 goes into how bad this problem really is.  It explains that the vast majority of Congress people can not be voted out of office and so they vote solely based on their funders.  This explains why Congress people seem to be voting against their constituents and why Congress, after the great 2010 state level gerrymandering has not been able to pass meaningful legislation.

    @Google: Lawrence Lessig: Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress

    The Sequester starts today Monday 7 Oct 2013.  Here's a SNL skit about how the House Republicans are blackmailing the country to defund Obamacare.
    We Did Stop - SNL Highlight

    California "Top Two" primary (Wiki)

    The primary election had a huge number of provisional ballots.  That's because of the lawsuit related to the top two primary system used in the 2012 election.  In the 2012 election there was only one ballot, it did not matter how you were registered.  But in the 2016 primary it mattered a lot how you were registered, and if you wanted to vote for Bernie and were not registered in of the accepted parties you needed to use a provisional ballot.

    PS If the top two ballot was used in the 2016 primary for Mendocino county, California the two candidates would be Sanders and Clinton (Trump came in third so not automatically on the November ballot.

    Because of a lawsuit the 2016 primary is very complicated.

    In prior years(before 2012) California used a closed primary (Wiki) where only registered Republicans get to vote for the Republican candidates and only Democrats for Democratic candidates.  The problem with this system is that there's no oath or other way of confirming which party you belong to when you register.  So voters would register in the opposition party so that they can vote for the candidate most likely to loose the election.

    The Top Two primary system that started with the June 2012 primary has the effect of eliminating third party (i.e. all except Democrats and Republications) from being on the November ballot.  That's because only two candidates are on the ballot and there's no provision for a write in.  In the presidential race there's provision for a voter to write in the name of anyone for president.

    The people who vote in  the primary are at the extremes of their parties, i.e. they do not represent the main stream voters.  So the extremists pick the candidates who will run in the November general election.  There's also low voter turnout. 

    We should just get rid of the primary elections, their main function is to eliminate candidates that are good for the people and put in candidates that big money wants.  This is a KEY point, i.e. Citizens United v. FEC (Wiki) was passed by the Supremes because the voters do get a chance in the November election.  If the primary election is removed that invalidates Citizens United.

    This causes a lot of confusion in the 2016 primary election where many people thought they could vote for Bernie, but could not because they were not registered correctly.  The poll workers have strict instructions not to say anything that could be interpreted as telling someone who to vote for, so were less than helpful in getting mis-registered voters the correct ballot.  If they used a provisional ballot and filled out a critical piece of information then that ballot would be disqualified, so they lost their vote.

    Lawrence Lessig: We the People, and the Republic we must reclaim

    Electoral College

    Note that the 12th amendment of constitution (See bad laws) makes provision for the electoral college for the office of President and Vice President (a history of The Electoral College by the chairman of the FEC).  Because of those rules a third party candidate can not be elected as president (bottom of pdf page 12).  But there is no provision for political parties in the Constitution.  Yet in the history of the electoral college it's flatly stated that the effect is such as to force a two party system, i.e. it prevents a third party candidate from being elected.  I expect this is why Bernie Sanders is running as a Democrat and also why Donald Trump is running as a Republican even though both of them are anti establishment candidates.


    The Problem of Authoritarian Followers


    Wiki: Authoritarian,

    Bob Altemeyer has spent a number of decades refining his measure of authoritarian behavior and it's now a very valid indicator.  Instead of using a book publisher he has chosen to make his book "The Authoritarians" a free on line pdf file.

    Conservatives Without Conscience, ISBN-13:978-0670037742, 2006, by John Dean is where I learned about Authoritarian behavior along with the Milgram Experiment (Wiki) (see below).  Milgram has shown that some people will do the bidding of an authoritarian figure, even to the point of killing someone else.  His experiment has been repeated many times with a number of variables and the result is confirmed.  The point is that it's not good for society to blindly follow authority figures.

    Republican Gomorrah: Inside the Movement that Shattered the Party, ISBN-10: 1568584172, 2010, by Max Blumenthal http://maxblumenthal.com/ - much of the analysis is based on the idea of authoritarian behavior.  It's interesting that Max uses Erich Fromm (Wiki) instead of Bob Altemeyer as his authoritarian expert although he uses Bob's phrasing.

    Fromm's books that are referenced in Gomorrah:
    Escape From Freedom (US), or The Fear of Freedom (UK) (Wiki)
    "Fromm characterizes the authoritarian personality as containing a sadist element and a masochist element. The authoritarian wishes to gain control over other people in a bid to impose some kind of order on the world, they also wish to submit to the control of some superior force which may come in the guise of a person or an abstract idea."
    The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness (1973) ISBN 978-0805016048
    "Fromm detected a profound link between necrophilious (Wiki) character traits and right-wing ideology."
    "In all of the samples, we found that anti-life tendencies were significantly correlated to political positions that supported increased military power and favored repression against dissenters."
    "Fromm identified necrophilious characters as among the most dangerous members of any society.  'They are the haters, the racists, those in favor of war, bloodshed and destruction,' he wrote.  'They are dangerous not only if they are political leaders, but also as the potential cohorts for a dictatorial leader.  They become the executioners, terrorists, torturers; without them no terror system could be set up.  But  the less intense necrophiles are also politically important; while they may not be among its first adherents, they are necessary for the existence of a terror regime because they form a solid basis, although not necessarily a majority, for it to gain power."

    Blackwater: The Rise of the World's Most Powerful Mercenary Army by Jeremy Scahill - it's very clear that there is a strong link between Christianity and the military.
    In the bonus features for the movie Green Zone it's also very clear that soldiers in a squad will do WHATEVER they are ordered to do when they have respect for their commander.
    In Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews by James Carroll 2001 (book and movie) - it's clear that the New Testament was written to be different than the Old Testament and the it's built-in hatred of Jews lead directly to the Holocaust (Wiki).  Also that the battle sword became the symbol of Christianity because of Constantine's victory at Rome.

    In the TED Talk How economic inequality harms societies: Richard Wilkinson says that income inequality is the cause of many social problems, but I say that authoritarianism has a stronger correlation to those problems by up to a factor of two.  Here's some data I collected based on fifty U.S. states ranked by percent of population that was Evangelical Christian (as a proxy for authoritarianism).  Income inequality is an available parameter for each state.  R*R is a measure of the statistical fit of a straight line to the data.
    Some of these correlations are mentioned in the book Republican Gomorrah.

    Correlation based on Authoritarianism is better than Income Inequality for: Life Expectancy,  Obesity, Infant Mortality, Hi School Grad, Teen Birth Rate and Prisoners.
    Correlation based on Income Inequality is better than Authoritarianism for: Murder, Abortion, Suicide and Army Recruiting.
    There does not appear to be a correlation preference for: Unemployment, Economic Growth or Rape.

    There is nothing in any of his or my data the goes to causality.  It may be that some states have a lot of problems and that drives their population to be Evangelical.
    Or it may be that people who are Evangelical make poor decisions that lead to social problems.

    Life Expectancy 0.52 0.26
    Obesity 0.49 0.01
    Infant Mortality 0.40 0.27
    Hi School Grad 0.40 0.30
    Teen Birth Rate 0.37 0.21
    Murder 0.25 0.32
    Abortion 0.07 0.31
    Suicide 0.00 0.28
    Prisoners 0.25 0.12
    Unemployment 0.22 0.20
    Army Recruiting 0.03 0.15
    Economic Growth 0.07 0.00
    Rape 0.03 0.04
    The UN's Human Development Index (UN, Wiki) - shows similar data but based on countries instead of states.

    Milgram's Experiment (Wiki)

    This is why Altemeyer's work is so important.  People that are Right Wing Authoritarian can be very dangerous.

    YouTube - Milgram's Obedience to Authority Experiment 2009 1/3
                     Milgram's Obedience to Authority Experiment 2009 2/3
    Milgram's Obedience to Authority Experiment 2009 3/3


    These are not only examples of authoritarian behavior but also of how current problems are caused by the actions of politicians where the Democrats and Republicans agree on the policy.


    The U.S. has more people in prison that any other country in the world (Wiki).  This is a result of the authoritarian mind set of the law makers when there was a "crime wave" in the 1980s and 1990s (Wiki).  As a result about half the people in prison are there for victimless crimes and need to be released and also have their rights restored.  The "Tough On Crime" laws, like Three Strikes (Wiki) need to be repealed.  The War on Drugs (Wiki) needs to be stopped both because it's wrong and because, like all wars, it's expensive.
    YouTube - Stanford Prision Experiment
    IMDB - The Experiment
    60 Spins Around the Sun (IMDB, NetFlix) - Randy Credico & his work on prison reform

    In the book My Life with Lifers (2012) Elaine Leeder makes that case the the majority of lifers have reformed themselves in spite of the prison system and no longer belong behind bars.  So it's not just the pot laws that need reform, it's much bigger than that.

    Brooke on Prison

    Law & Disorder by Mark Foire (00:01:36)

    The Mean World Syndrome by Media Education Foundation

    California Prisons: Cruel & Unusual Blues

    Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Prison -

    Teen Pregnancy

    The U.S. is No. 1 of the industrial countries in teen pregnancy.
    Joycelyn Elders (Wiki) was the U.S. Surgeon General while Democrat Bill Clinton was president and fired for honestly answering a question about masturbation.  At that time (and still in 2014) the official U.S. policy was that teenagers should abstain from sex.  The Republican position on anything sex related is from the dark ages.  And even today under Obama the surgeon general advice dances around contraception in education, see:

    The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Promote Sexual Health and Responsible Sexual Behavior - from their web site as of May 2012 but is dated 2001. It's an eleven year old policy that hasn't been updated.

    U.S. Children living in poverty

    Tens of millions of children living in poverty in the world’s richest countries - Brussels, 29 May 2012 – UNICEF - Report Card 10
    "The Nordic countries and the Netherlands have the lowest rates of relative child poverty, at around seven per cent. Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United Kingdom have rates of between 10 and 15 per cent, while more than 20 per cent of children in Romania and the United States live in relative poverty"

    Making Sex Normal: Debby Herbenick at TEDxBloomington

    In the talk starting at 05:38 are U.S. maps showing Gonorrhea and HIV.  Notice that the authoritarian states have a much higher infection rate than other states.

    TED Toni Mac -The laws that sex workers really want - decriminalization, like has been done in New Zealand, is the best solution (Wiki).  The next step would be to use the employer of last resort by a sovereign government idea from MMT to offer a job to anyone who wanted one.

    End War in all it's forms

    Where do the other candidates stand on the Defense (war) budget and foreign military bases?  This is the No. 1 expense of the U.S. and is taking money away from other uses.

    Any other "War on . . . " needs to be looked at in the light of ending it.
    Wiki: List of countries by military expenditures - U.S. 711 Billion, China 143 Billion - the U.S. spends more than all the other countries combined on war.
    Wiki: List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel - U.S. has 4.7 soldiers per 1,000 population, a much smaller fraction than 49 other countries. 
    When you combine the above two statistics you can see that the U.S. spends the money on equipment, like aircraft carriers, fighter planes, bombs, bullets, etc.
    Wiki: List of countries by level of military equipment - the U.S. has 12 aircraft carriers, no other country has more than 2

    Dying To Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism 2005 by Robert A. Pape - He makes a good case that suicide terrorists have a strategic goal of getting an invading army to withdraw.  The invading army is from a democracy (there is no point in trying to change the mind of a dictator) and the terrorists have a religion that's different from the invading military.  It's very clear that the religion of the terrorists is a secondary factor.  The primary factor is that they are being invaded.

    This means our foreign policy is wrong on many counts, especially stationing U.S. troops in non Christian countries.  Much better to get them all out ASAP.

    Institute for Economics and Peace (Wiki) - 2012 Global Peace Index (GPI) ranks the U.S. at 88 out of 158 countries. 
    The Economic Consequences of War on US Economy.pdf - "The higher levels of government spending associated with war tends to generate some positive economic benefits in the short-term, specifically through increases in economic growth occurring during conflict spending booms. However, negative unintended consequences occur either concurrently with the war or develop as residual effects afterwards thereby harming the economy over the longer term.

    War on Terrorism

    Wiki: Criticism of the War on Terror

    YouTube: Days of Revolt - Why the Brutalized Become Brutal - Chris Hedges - 22 soldiers per day commit suicide in the U.S. - not because of what was done to them but because what they have done.

    War on other countries

    The U.S. is the world's imperialist war monger.  We must remove all ability of the President to declare war. The Constitution says it's the job of Congress to declare war.  If we are really attacked AND the enemy is really known, I think Congress will act.
    The 700-plus foreign military bases need to be closed.  Not only is what we're doing ugly, but it's also extremely expensive.  We simply can not afford it.
    Dismantling the Empire: America's Last Best Hope (American Empire Project) by Chalmers A. Johnson (2010)
    The Book Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower by William Blum (2005) explains the current U.S. situation.

    TED: Regina Dugan: From mach-20 glider to humming bird drone
    - why spend all this money on what will become a faster Predator drone instead of doing some good?

    Bill of Rights Defense Committee - Issues
    Biometric identification and tracking, Due process, Executive power, Freedom of speech and dissent, Government secrecy, Immigration, enforcement, Infiltration of First Amendment-protected groups, Militarization of local police, Military detention, Privacy, Racial profiling, Torture, Second Amendment, Surveillance and intelligence collection

    In California there are FasTrak towers along the 101 freeway to monitor cars (not for charging tolls) and in areas where there are no FasTrak towers they have license plate readers.  This all goes into a data base so when asked someone can find out where you drive. Combine that with every use of a credit or charge card, or photo posted to a web page (the EXIF data on the photo often have location data and face recognition puts a name, date, time and location together) and you have a location data base for everyone in the world.

    Heart and Mind-O-Matic by Mark Foire (00:01:31)

    Declaration of Thingamajig  by Mark Foire (00:01:56)

    War on Terror Note:  Whether you call someone a terrorist or a freedom fighter depends on which side you are on.  I think that all those the past two administrations have called terrorists are being called freedom fighters in their country.  So a war on terrorism makes no sense.  That's to say they are attacking us because of something we are doing that they can't stand.
    Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower by William Blum (2000 & 2005)
    Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism by Robert Pape (2005)
    The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 by Robin Wright (2006)

    The War on Drugs (Wiki)

    April 2016 update
    Harper's - Legalize It All, How to win the war on drugs By Dan Baum

    "I started to ask Ehrlichman a series of earnest, wonky questions that he impatiently waved away. “You want to know what this was really all about?” he asked with the bluntness of a man who, after public disgrace and a stretch in federal prison, had little left to protect. “The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.”

    Has been a very expensive failure in many ways and needs to be ended.
    The Wiki web page looks at the cost to tax payers and only uses two economic factors: law enforcement savings ($ 44 Billion) and tax revenues ($33 Billion).  But the U.S. annual spending on prisons is $ 60 Billion.  If half the prison population is there because of victimless drug related crimes there's a savings of about $ 30 Billion.  It's not clear of the wiki number for law enforcement includes the prison savings.  I think it's just the enforcement aspect of the War of Drugs.
    One More Reason to End the War on Drugs: It's Spreading HIV/AIDS - June 26, 2012 By Julian Brookes Rolling Stone
    TED Talk: Shereen El-Feki: HIV -- how to fight an epidemic of bad laws
    "Australia and Switzerland were two countries which introduced harm reduction very early on in their HIV epidemics, and they have a very low rate of HIV among injecting drug users. The U.S. and Malaysia came to harm reduction a little later, and they have higher rates of HIV in these populations. Thailand and Russia, however, have resisted harm reduction and have stringent laws which punish drug use. And hey, surprise surprise, have very high rates of HIV among people who are injecting drugs."

    From footnote 3 of  The Riddle of the Gun by Sam Harris (written just after the Sandy Hook school shootings)
    Our misguided war on drugs is surely an important factor where gangs are concerned. This is another vicious circle: Like Prohibition before it, the war on drugs renders the sale of illicit drugs extraordinarily profitable while requiring that drug dealers function outside the law, protecting their investment and turf with guns. If we ended our war on drugs, the money that finances most gang activity would disappear, as would one of the primary reasons for gang violence. No doubt, gangs would remain. But with the war on drugs abandoned, our police, courts, and departments of corrections could focus on the real problem of violent crime.

    Youtube - Retired Police Captain demolishes the War on Drugs

    TED -Ethan Nadelmann: Why we need to end the War on Drugs Oct 2014 - Speaker's Footnotes -

    The War on Fat (see my Diet and Nutrition web page)

    12 June 2014 - Time magazine cover Eat Butter: Scientists labeled fat the enemy.  They were wrong by Bryan Walsh
    Time's video: Ending the war on fat- the science is sound, but the politicians don't get it and are still promoting sickness.

    War on Terrorism (Wiki)

    Wiki defines a terrorist as people who commit "violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror), are perpetrated for a religious, political or, ideological goal; and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (civilians)."  Notice that there's no focus in this definition, that's to say if the attack was motivated by religion then the attacks would be everywhere in the world where that difference existed.  If people in a country feed they are under attack by another country then they will focus their efforts at that country.  I think that's what happened on 9/11.

    The 9/11 hijackers (Wiki) were all affiliated with al-Qaeda (Wiki) one of it's founders was Osama bin Laden (Wiki) and he explained why they attacked (Wiki).  This explanation does not involve terrorism (even though Wiki says it was a terrorist act).  From the point of view of those who planned and executed the attack thought they were defending their way of life from attacks by the U.S. in the form of sanctions against Iraq (Wiki), Presence of U.S. military in Saudi Arabia (Wiki) and by Support of Israel by the United States (Wiki).

    This is a witch hunt that needs to be ended.  In the book Dying to Win: the Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism by Robert Pape (2005) the case is made that they were trying to get a foreign military out of their religious region.  And that the religion of the invading military was different from that of the region and that the military came from a a democracy.

    TEDx Michael Huemer - The Irrationality of Politics -

    9/11 Conspiracy Theories: Chris Mohr's rebuttal to Richard Gage - This 20 part series is one of the best.
    National Geographic Science & Conspiracy Part 01 -This 10 part series is also very good.

    War on Poverty (Wiki)

    This started in 1964 and has been a total failure.  Modern Monetary Theory (See MMT below) says that the main reason for poverty is lack of jobs.  None of the programs in the WOP involved creating jobs.
    Until a direct job creation program is put in place for "full employment" poverty will continue. 

    Okun's rule of thumb (Wiki) - for every 1% increase in the unemployment rate, a country's GDP will be roughly an additional 2% lower than its potential GDP.
    If the US GDP (WIKI 2015) is $ 20 trillion and unemployment (Wiki)  is at 10 to 30% (depending on if it's "official" or includes people who have given up or underemployed).
    (20% unemployment * 2 * 20 trillion is $8 trillion per year in improvement in GDP if these people were employed.
    If the 20%  * 150 million employable people = 30 million people that could be working.
    $ 8 trillion / 30 million people = 0.266 * 1E6 = $267,000/year/person  for a break even jobs program or $133/hour.  But, according to MMT the wage should be below Walmart or maybe $ 8 to $10 /hour. So it seems to make economic sense to employ everyone ready, willing and able to work.

    International Agreements

    The U.S. has lost sight of these.

    Hague Convention      of 1907 (Wiki)
    Geneva Protocol        of 1925 (Wiki)
    Kellogg–Briand Pact  of 1926 (Wiki)
    Nuremberg principles of 1950 (Wiki)


    Things like jobs, the economy, Global Warming and education can not be improved unless the above issues are greatly reduced in importance.  Part of the benefit of addressing the above issues is that a huge amount of money will become available for peaceful purposes.


    Here's an example that demonstrates a number of the problems.

     In Financial Crisis, No Prosecutions of Top Figures, by Gretchen Morgenson and Louise Story NYT April 14, 2011

    The End of Habeas Corpus? By Ryan Cooper June 11, 2012 - the Supremes have come out against the Constitution - SCOTUSblog

    Latif v. Obama, 11-1027 - the Supremes ruled that you are guilty unless you can prove you are innocent.

    Fox News Scares Obama Admin - EPA Resignation May 3, 2012 by

    Salon.com - Glenn Greenwald - With Liberty and Justice for Some (Book)

    Presidential Pardons & Grants of Immunity & Cover Ups

    Ford pardons Nixon for criminal activity (Wiki) - Watergate
    Carter pardons G. Gordon Liddy (wiki) - Watergate
    Reagan pardons George Steinbrenner (Wiki) - Obstruction of Justice, Watergate
    G.H.W. Bush pardons: Elliott Abrams, Duane Clarridge, Clair George, Alan D. Fiers, Robert C. McFarlane, Caspar Weinberger - Iran-Contra, Armand Hammer CEO of the Occidental Petroleum Co. & many many others (Wiki)
    Clinton pardons: Roger Clinton, Jr. - his brother,  Lewis Libby Watergate, Fife Symington III - Republican Governor of Arizona, Susan McDougal - partners with Bill Clinton and Hillary Rodham Clinton (Wiki:Whitewater), Henry Cisneros - Clinton's Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, Mel Reynolds - Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives, John Deutch - Director of Central Intelligence, FALN - commuted the sentences of 16 members of FALN, a violent Puerto Rican terrorist group that set off 120 bombs in the United States
    G.W. Bush pardons: Lewis "Scooter" Libby - Assistant to President George W. Bush and Chief of Staff to Dick Cheney related to Valerie Plame & gave retroactive immunity to Verizon, AT&T, and Qwest.  "...the Bush White House had converted the DOJ into it's own political group and was firing honest prosecutors who refused to advance that agenda." (from Greenwald's book With Liberty and Justice for Some page 196)
    Obama gives immunity to the telecom industry (Wiki).  He also has stopped foreign governments from prosecuting the Bush43 administration for war crimes (see: Greenwald's book With Liberty and Justice for Some starting at page 181 Philadelphia Daily News "The Day That Barack Obama Lied to Me" by Will Bunch (1 Oct 2010).

    "In its first months in office, the Obama administration sought to protect Bush administration officials facing criminal investigation overseas for their involvement in establishing policies the that governed interrogations of detained terrorist suspects. An April 17, 2009, cable sent from the US embassy in Madrid to the State Department—one of the 251,287 cables obtained by WikiLeaks—details how the Obama administration, working with Republicans, leaned on Spain to derail this potential prosecution."

    Donald Trump pardons: Joe Arpaio (Wiki), Scooter Libby (Wiki, Plame Affair), Dinesh D’Souza (Wiki),

    2019 January 31 - Rolling Stone: A Timeline of Controversial Presidential Pardons -
    Barak Obama's Righteous Drone Strikes - "has carried out 5 times as many drone strikes as Bush43...
    Rather than send prisoners to Gitmo, he's taking the high road by sending them to their maker."
    NYT -"Mr. Obama has avoided the complications of detention by deciding...to take no prisoners alive."

    The Colbert Report
    Get More: Colbert Report Full Episodes,Political Humor & Satire Blog,Video Archive

    The Colbert Report - The Word - Due or Die

    The Colbert Report
    Get More: Colbert Report Full Episodes,Political Humor & Satire Blog,Video Archive


    Another way justice is thwarted is by means of Executive Privilege (Wiki). Examples:

    United States v. Nixon (Wiki)--abou getting the Watergate tapes
    Clinton tried to use it in the
    Lewinsky scandal but failed.
    G.W. Bush used it on many occasions (Wiki)
    The SEC used it Feb. 4, 2009 during the House Investigation of why they failed to act when information about Bernard Madoff was presented (Wiki)

    Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act CISPA (Wiki) - this proposal contains a grant of immunity from criminal prosecution for the companies who provide private information.  This is in addition to throwing out the 4th amendment of the constitution.

    "State Secrets" (Wiki) - I believe there are a number of things that should be secret and we have the National Security Agency (Wiki) who makes and breaks secret codes.  But I also think it's very wrong for the government to hide behind the claim that something can not be disclosed because it involves something related to a state secret.   The problem is that the government is saying "trust us".  And as the book Why Leaders Lie: the Truth About Lying in International Politics by John Mearsheimer it's common for leaders to lie to their own people.  Hiding behind the claim of a state secret started with the supreme court case United States v. Reynolds (Wiki) which led to the State secrets privilege (Wiki).  The proposed State Secrets Protection Act (Wiki) would have made it harder for the government to hide what it was doing, but it could not be passed in Congress.


    The quality of education in the U.S. is very poor considering that we spend more than any other country on it (in terms of absolute dollars or in terms of dollars per student).  Note, this very similar to the case of our health care where we spend more than anyone else in the world, yet have poor coverage.  (Dec 2018) this may relate to the U.S. being high on the Hofsteade Individualism Culture Dimension Scale (official web page)

    Here is a YouTube video that I feel is 100% correct.
    Next School (Big Picture Learning) - 6 Problems with our School System (5:56) -
        Seth Godin (0:21) Home page, YouTube, Amazon, Wiki,
        Ken Robinson Home PageTED2006TED2010, TED2013, Wiki,
    1. Industrial Age Values
    2. Lack of Autonomy  & Control
        Dan Pink (2:06) Home Page, TED2009, Wiki,
        Peter Gray Psychology TodayWiki, Amazon (Free to Learn: Why Unleashing the Instinct to Play Will Make Our Children Happier, More Self-Reliant, and Better Students for Life - on order)
    3. Inauthentic Learning
    4. No Room for Passions & Interests
        Winston Churchill - has an average grade of 'C' in school
        Steven Spielberg - Failed 6th grade
        John Lennon - was described as hopeless and a clown in class
        Albert Einstein - was expelled for his rebelliousness
        [Thomas Edison - H.S.D.O (High School Drop Out)]
    5. Differences in How we Learn
    6. Lecturing
        Sal Khan (Wiki)- Kahn Academy (Wiki) - a fundamentally dehumanizing experience

    The Windsor Unified School District Alternative Ed has a Big Picture option.
    TED (Wiki) -

    Our whole education system is geared to turn out factory workers but almost all those jobs have been replaced by robots or moved offshore. (see John Gato below)

     California Master Plan

    When I went to Foothill Jr. College (1960) then transferred to San Jose State (1962) there was no tuition (Wiki).  I only needed to pay for my books and lab fees.  This was part of the  California Master plan for higher education (Wiki). When I was working in Silicon Valley there were more Masters and PhD degrees there than anywhere else on the planet.  Because of that, there were (and still are) a lot of high technology start up companies located there.  So the state of California got back much more than they invested in higher education.

    When Ronald Reagan was running for Governor of California some college students threw a vegetable at him in protest of his ideas.  In retaliation, when he became governor he fired Clark Kerr (Wiki, movie: The Reagans IMDB, book: First Ladies Vol 2 Amazon) and changed the funding system of the colleges in California to make students pay, i.e. reversing the system that Brown and Kerr had put in place for free public higher education.  This has lead to the current situation where the UC system is so expensive (UC: admissions, does not include normal living expenses like food, clothes, computer, gas, etc.) that even if you live here it's not affordable to normal people.

    Critics of Bernie Sanders ask how he will fund free public college.  What they fail to see is the huge benefit of that education, which has much more value than it's cost.  Also Modern Monetary Theory teaches us that the federal government can fund anything it wants (federal taxes do not fund federal spending and never have)

    This will have an impact on where high technology businesses will locate, both in terms of California and the U.S. vs. other countries.

    Since the manufacturing jobs that depend on labor have been (or will be) replaced by robots or exported to countries with lower labor rates, it's even more important to increase the level and quality of education in the U.S.

    The United Nations - Human Development Report - Public Data Explorer - the U.S. is spending about 5% of GDP on education or about $750 Billion per year but the results are very poor for the money.  It's the same story as our health care.

    High School Graduation rates in the U.S. are below the OECD  average, and just barley above the G20 average.  See OECD: How Many Students Finish Secondary education?

    Wiki: List of countries by literacy rate
    - U.S. is No. 45  (2012) , 46, 47, 50 100 (Feb 2016), 232 of 234 (Dec 2018) a pretty poor showing.  As of Jan 2017 the US is no longer ranked, ie. "not reported by UNESCO 2015" along with those countries that are below the world average.
    PS I edit the page every now and them.  When I first made this web page (2012) the U.S. was 45th, but each time our ranking goes down a notch or two.  Feb 2016 we are now half way down the list since there are about 200 countries in the world a ranking of 100 is average, that's to say half of the countries in the world have better education than we do.

    John Gato (Wiki) says our "schooling" system was designed to put the "lesser people" in their place so they could be controlled.  I don't buy all of his ideas, but some of them may be correct.

    TED Talk: José Bowen: Beethoven the businessman - it's not till the last few seconds that he makes the parallel to education, but it's a very good one. "with the internet we have a different distribution system and so schools have got to think about what we are selling. (he thinks) the face to face interaction is not going away...."
    and that leads to:

    TED Talk: Salman Khan: Let's use video to reinvent education - Khan Academy - students learn on line and do homework in class with a teacher
    The Los Altos school district is using this system and it includes breaking the lessons into units that match the California curriculum.

    Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Student Debt - the for profit schools are an embarrassment & the student debt is a national disaster

    Possible Solution

    The educational system of Finland (Wiki) may be a better model of where we should be heading.  (maybe not, see Gadwell - Andrews below)

    Note: compulsory education is through 9th grade (Wiki) and admission to upper secondary school (17 & 18 year old) is based on GPA (Wiki).
    In March 2018 Finland was ranked the most happy country and they have the best school system worldwide.  Note that "Most of the top 10 are social democracies, which “believe that what makes people happy is solid social support systems, good public services, and even paying a significant amount in taxes for that.”

    In Taiwan there are national tests and only some percent of students can advance in public education (Wiki), so only the very best students attend public high school.
    This has the effect of weeding out students who are troublemakers.  In the U.S. the schools keep all students, and the troublemakers pull down the rest.

    In Denmark (Wiki) "education is compulsory for children below the age of 15 or 16, even though it is not compulsory to attend"

    Now reading: Education Myths: What Special-Interest Groups Want You to Believe About our Schools - and why it isn't so by Jay P. Greene
    Promotes the idea of Charter Schools (Wiki) - this privatization (Wiki, Major U.S. cases almost all of which turned out badly) of the schools is a bad idea for a number of reasons.
    The U.S. is now suffering many of the problems of the U.S.S.R in the 1960s.  One of those is that the factories in the U.S.S.R. were under contract to the government, but they did stupid things, while in full compliance with their contract.  Whenever any business comes about by privatization they have a capitalistic motive to make profit by strictly following the contract but doing things that harm society.  So although it's possible to have a successful privatization, it requires an iron tight contract and those are as common as chicken's teeth.

    It used to be that the U.S. Vocational Schools (Wiki) were run by the state governments.  This provided three options for people leaving high school: college, vocational school or no further education.  As part of the No Child Left Behind (Wiki) Act the idea was that all students would go to college, hence vocational ed was shut down.  By 2015 it was realized the "teaching the test" (Wiki) which was a result of No Child Left Behind was a bad idea the federal program was terminated, but the vocational schools have not been brought back.  Where I live there is a shortage of trades people.

    A recent report on the Junior College system shows that a two year degree in any real profession results in a huge multiplier on annual salary and so is an excellent investment.  Our local Jr. college has a long waiting list for the nursing school.

    For profit schools tried to fill the void left by the state run vocational schools, but pretty much all of them failed to deliver.  It turns out that some of these private schools falsified their placement rates to defraud their investors, get money from the U.S. government and to get more enrollment.  In order to have a viable vocational education system there needs to be jobs for those who graduate.

    Note that in my opinion there's a large need (demand) for many vocations such as nurses, building trades, and once the federal government understands how the economy really works (see MMT) infrastructure related jobs.  These all require vocational education, something now only a small part of our educational system.  For example the California Dept of Ed web page shows Agriculture, Business & Marketing, Health, Home Economics & Industrial & Technology but not building trades or infrastructure related jobs.

    If we shrink class sizes and give schools the power to expel difficult students then we also need to think about where the expelled students end up.

    John Gatto (Wiki) says the education system is "Dumbing Us Down".  Here are some of his ideas:
    Why you should take your children out of public school -
    "Advice from Harvard: 10 Skills for Success in the Global Economy" - Enter your email on John's page for a free copy of his paper, or just Google the title.
    10 qualities to acquire to meet the changing standards
    1. Ability to define problems without a guide.
    2. Ability to ask questions that challenge common assumptions.
    3. Ability to work without guidance.
    4. Ability to work absolutely alone.
    5. Ability to persuade others that yours is the right course.
    6. Ability to debate issues and techniques in public.
    7. Ability to re-organize information into new patterns.
    8. Ability to discard irrelevant information.
    9. Ability to think dialectically. (Karl Popper would challenge this idea, see Open Society below) maybe this is better phrased as critical thinking (Wiki)
    10.Ability to think inductively, deductively, and heuristically.

    Sep 2016 - NYT - Government Severs Ties With For-Profit Colleges Accreditor - Inside Higher Ed - Nov 2015 Shaming Accreditors -
    See Higher Education Opportunity Act above in Bad Laws- This is very similar to how the financial rating agencies (S&P), Moody's, and Fitch) lied about the credit of various Mortgage Backed Securities and were not held accountable (Wiki).  There has been little if any change in the rules for the rating agencies.  Note the annual US government spending on for profit colleges is about $5 Billion and it appears most of it is of little or no value in terms of education, but only to go into the pockets of the for profit colleges.

    added this Gadwell - Andrews ideas 2018 December 28

    Malcolm Gadwell gave a YouTube talk on plane crashes: Why Do Planes Crash? Malcolm Gladwell on Outliers, Work, Culture, Communication and their cultural cause using the Power Distance Index (PDI) Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory (Wiki) - The PDI may be similar to Bob Altemeyer's (Wiki) Right Wing Authoritarianism (Wiki: RWA) (above, Wiki: Authoritarianism).  

    There is some criticism of RWA and the PDI may be a more accurate metric?  then he said that PDI may be the key to teaching math.  Teachers in the Cupertino school district (Wiki) say "not all Asian students get straight As".  The paper below by Andrews is probably his source.

    paper: Understanding the Cultural Construction of School Mathematics.pdf, Paul Andrews, 2016 - "...Finnish students linguistic and mathematical competence.  However, recent analyses indicate that such successes may be due more to matters cultural than didactical." ... "Hofstede’s well known study initially identified four dimensions of culture.  The first, power distance, concerns the extent to which followers accept being led.  “A society’s power distance level is bred in its families through the extent to which its children are socialized toward obedience or toward initiative”  In the criticisms of RWA I've read the best replacement relates to "parenting" and there the key question of how to raise children in regard to obedience/initiative.

    Student Loans

    See California Master Plan (above) for why education should be free. 

    2019 February 12 - DOE Inspector General: Federal Student Air: Additional Actions Needed to Mitigate the Risk of Servicer Noncompliance with Requirements for servicing Federally Held Student Loans (pdf) - a scathing report on abuses.

    2019 February 24 - YouTube: Student Loans | Patriot Act with Hasan Minhaj | Netflix - based on the above report.

    The Economy

    The paragraph below on MMT came about after doing a lot of reading about the Global Minotaur which turns out to be a Greek myth (then and now).

    2018May - Prospect:  Rip it up and start again: the case for a new economics -

    Modern Monetary Theory (Wiki: MMT, Chartalism)

    MMT is a new way of looking at the economy of countries.  For sure it's a major paradigm shift (Wiki).  This means that it's difficult to convince people that hold the old fashioned ideas of economics that the new way offers a more accurate view.  This is demonstrated by making better predictions and explanations of factors that the old view has been getting wrong for about four decades.

    For about 200 generations of economists the monetary system they were studying had an artificial constraint in that the money was tied to either gold or silver.  There have only been 2 generations of economists looking at some economies (like the US, Japan, China) where that's no longer true.  So it's easy to see how they missed the underlying ideas of MMT.

    Prior to 1971 there was "classical economics" but after 1971 everything changed, but most people are still working on the old rules.  If you don't know how something works then it's hard to make predictions or fix a problem.  It's like a mechanic trained on a gas engine car horse and buggy trying to work on an electric car.  The economic policies of political parties are grounded in the old system and they can not "flip-flop" so have not adopted MMT yet.  But the time is coming when the failure of the old ideas to work as predicted will be clearly seen and a change will then occur.  For example the idea that the FED can influence "stability (aka: Inflation) or jobs is false, but a lot of people still think it's true.  Also the national debt is a good thing now, but is now seen as a bad thing.  The idea that the federal government needs to raise money to fund their spending programs is false.

    Silver Certificate
    Money based on gold and/or silver ended in 1971. Prior to 1968 they could be changed for silver, after than only into a Federal Reserve Note.
    "Silver Certificate (Wiki)  this certifies that there is on deposit in the treasury of the United States of America One Dollar"
    Note the Series (year) 1957 B on this case is not the year printed but rather related to the year the design was first introduced.  The newest $1 silver certificate is this one.

    The replacement Federal Reserve Notes now used are not redeemable for anything.  But they say "This note is legal tender for all debts public and private"

    This is an idea that came about post 1971 (Wiki: Nixon Shock), so does not agree with prior economic theories that go back thousands of years.  The benefits of MMT apply only to sovereign governments where there are no constraints on the money (for example not on the gold standard) and the government is the issuer of the money (not a user like the members of the EMU) .  But MMT can also be used to get insight into economies where the benefits do not apply, such as the EU.  The U.S. federal government operates using MMT rules but elected officials don't understand that.  MMT does not apply to the EU (Wiki), states, cities or households.  The key concept is that when MMT applies the government can always pay for what it wants, i.e. it's checks never bounce.  There's never a solvency issue.

    I see MMT as a new framework or point of view in understanding how the US (and other countries) economy works.  It is not a policy.  That's so say how someone uses the ideas of MMT depends on them.  For example the quantity (G-T) government spending minus government taxes can be changed many ways.  Bill Clinton (Wiki) made (G-T) negative, i.e. he paid down the national debt, which MMT teaches us means he sucked money out of the private sector, not a good thing in a healthy economy.  So how you raise or lower spending and/or taxes is a policy decision.  MMT allows you to predict the impact based on (G-T).

    Recognizing that MMT is the correct way of seeing the US government financial situation does not mean that there will be more money to spend but rather it makes much more clear how fiscal and monetary policy work.

    The mood of society today (2016) seems pessimistic.  For example the movie Requiem For The American Dream (IMDB, Netflix) reinforces the pessimism.  While American manufacturing output is at an all time high in terms of dollars, employment in the private sector is down about 30% from 20 years ago.  That's to say there are a lot (tens of millions) of people out of work.  It's clear that the private sector has traded jobs for profits and they will not be the source of new jobs any time soon.  None of the presidential candidates has presented a concrete program for job creation.  But MMT offers a lot of hope for job creation.

    Reality vs. Policy

    I've heard from some people that they "don't like MMT" because if the government "adopts" MMT they will end up just printing a huge amount of money.  This mistakes the reality of how our economy works with a policy decision.  It's not that the government should adopt MMT, but rather MMT explains how a policy will impact the economy.  MMT is a description of how the economy currently works.  For example the FED currently has: " three key objectives for monetary policy in the Federal Reserve Act: maximizing employment, stabilizing prices, and moderating long-term interest rates. (Wiki)".  But after 1971 monetary policy has no effect on jobs, hence after all the Quantitative Easing (Wiki: QE) there has been no impact on jobs because the rules have changed.  In fact the only thing the Fed can do is control the overnight interest rate.  It does not have any tools that will do anything else.  There is talk of just folding it into the Dept. of the Treasury since what it does now is an automatic function.

    If you don't know how something works and you try to fix or modify it the results may not be what you expect.  For example if you believe that when your car is going down the freeway it makes a lot of exhaust, so if you pipe the exhaust back into the engine the car will run better, it will not work the way you expect.  A good understanding of how things really work is necessary in order to make changes that will work the way you expect.  The economic ideas prior to 1971 were sort of OK for their time, but now no longer describe how the system really works.

    Key Years
    1776 - There were two revolutions, one summarized in the Declaration of Independence (Wiki) and the other in the book Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith (Wiki), which is the basis of  capitalism. (but with errors)
    1946 - American Affairs Jan 1946 V VIII, No. 1 - Taxes for Revenue Are Obsolete (pdf), Beardsley Ruml, Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York - The experience of W.W.II showed that the U.S. could pay for the war without raising the needed revenue from taxes.  (for more see Other MMT references)
    1971 - Another major revolution happened, but very few people really understood the implications.  It wasn't until 1992 that Warren Mosler, the father of Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) had an epiphany in relation to the bond market in Italy where he understood better than the Italian government that they could never default on their bond payments because they were at that time a sovereign government with a floating currency.  That meant that they could always pay their bills.
    1998 - Forecast of 2008 Global Financial Crisis (Wiki): Goldilocks and the Three Bears - the 3 bears are: Asian debt deflation, belief that economy was strong 1996 - 1997, Clinton budget surplus
    1999 - Forecast of 2008 Global Financial Crisis: Can Goldilocks Survive? - "Goldilocks is doomed"  forecast the Global Financial Crisis and cites the Clinton budget surplus as the cause
    2001 - Forecast 2009 European Union debt crisis (Wiki), Rites of Passage financial problems would happen in the European Monetary Union (see EU below) in the exact way that they transpired.
               YouTube talk: Warren Mosler, The Euro: past, present and future. The Crossroads Workshop 1 in Zurich  
    2003 - Iraq War:  taxes were not raised to pay for the war, the government just wrote checks to pay for it
    2003 -
    Convergence Going In, Divergence Coming Out Default Risk Premiums and the Prospects for Stabilization in the Eurozone - "Until something is done to enable member states to avert these financial constraints (e.g. political union and the establishment of a federal (EU) budget or the establishment of a new lending institution, designed to aid member states in pursuing a broad set of policy objectives), the prospects for stabilization in the Eurozone appear grim."
    The Long and Short of It at Goldman Sachs (Ben Stein was very wrong) - Jan Hatzius of Goldman Sachs forecasts trouble with home mortgages based on Wynne Godley's Sectoral balances.  This is some years after the 1998 & 1999 papers making the same case.  I'm looking for the paper by Jan Hatzius.
    2008 - Alan Greenspan when asked if taxpayer money was used to bail out the banks he said no, it was just keystrokes.

    Key Idea
    Governments operating under the MMT rules (see Scope above)  are the issuers of their currency.  They must spend money BEFORE they can collect it using taxes.  (see gold below for how it used to be) The current misconception that the federal government must tax in order to raise money so they can spend it on government programs appeared to be true prior to 1971, but that's no longer the case.  This is similar to a football stadium issuing tickets then collecting them, in both cases the issue comes before the collection.

    Note that for a simple model of the economy where there is only the government sector and the private sector (i.e. assuming balanced imports and exports) any deficit in the government sector is balanced exactly to the penny with a private sector surplus.  This is an accounting identity, not a theory.  It's like looking at a transaction as if you are the government or the private sector.  So if the federal government balances the budget, or worse runs a surplus, the private sector is drained of money, that's not a good thing.  Since it's impossible for a government operating under the MMT scope to bounce a check there's no problem with a deficit.  In fact if the economy is healthy you would expect the federal deficit to grow.  That's to say the surplus in the private sector will grow.

    The book The Deficit Lie points to the 1992 presidential debate where a question about the deficit can not be answered.

    After W.W.II the U.S. invested heavily in Germany and Japan rather than punishing them like Germany was punished after W.W.I.  Since W.W.II the US has imported many products from Germany and Japan, and more recently from China.  The countries whose products we import are getting paid in US dollars.  The reason we are importing these goods is because they appear to be a good deal to us and the sellers are happy to get US dollars in exchange.  There is some current worry about the amount of US bonds and Treasury bills held by China.  But China can not ask the US to cash in their bonds/bills in gold (see Scope above).  Their options are limited.  They can buy US products or exchange the US dollar denominated bonds/bills for some other currency at the existing exchange rate.  Note that a large currency exchange will have the effect of making the Chinese money stronger (which has been the desire of the US government for a long time) thus making Chinese imports more expensive and also making US exports to China, Germany and Japan more attractive to them.

    Trade allows for world wide competition so a free market allows consumers to pay a lower price.  So economists say it's a good thing.  But, when US workers compete in a world wide market they loose their jobs.  So, while it's true that in an economic sense everyone is better off (in terms of being able to buy goods at lower prices) it comes at the expense of jobs that are permanently lost.

    MMT offers a solution to the unemployment problem (see jobs below).  Classical economics offers no solution to unemployment.  That's to say classical economics has blood on it's hands in terms of human suffering.

    I expect that in the future a larger percentage of the population will be permanently out of work.  The existing support structure for the unemployed is far from adequate and needs to be improved.

    Tax Implications

    Prior to 1971 the government did need to use federal taxes to fund their spending (see Gold below), but that's very different since 1971.

    Since there is no need to collect taxes in order to spend, the policy of taxes can be seen in light of two ideas. 

    First, if the federal government did not require anyone to pay them using US dollars then the currency probably would not have value.  So if somewhere the federal government requires a payment in US dollars then the US dollar has some value.  Because MMT is such a new idea no one has really determined what level of payments to the government are required, if any, to give the US dollar official value.  Prior to 1971 this was not an issue.

    Second, taxes should be used for progressive purposes and to punish "evils" such as alcohol, tobacco or other things society wants to discourage.  So when the purpose of taxes is seen in this light, payroll taxes are a very bad idea.  They penalize employers, employees, drive jobs off shore and encourage replacing workers with automation.   So a very progressive income tax would stop the extreme compensation packages that C-suite executives now get.  Prior to 1980 the marginal rate was 80% now it's more like 15%.  In my opinion is should be 50.0%.  I choose half because if the rate goes over half then the taxpayer is encouraged to waste money on buying tax losses.  That's to say people do stupid things when they are dealing with losses rather than gains.

    A really simple solution would be to eliminate all payroll taxes and provide all citizens Social Security (medical then retirement) benefits and eliminate all the current payroll taxes and record keeping and replace that with an annual W2 statement of taxable income that would determine the retirement benefit amount.  Note "medicare for all" greatly simplifies the current record keeping both for the government and for the vendor (doctor, hospital, employer...).  I expect this simple idea would save billions if not trillions of dollars in record keeping costs alone.  Currently every medical facility in the country has a staff of people whose only job is to match up the different insurance payment rules with the procedure the doctor recorded.  In a similar way employers have record keeping expenses that really are not needed if this simple idea was adopted.

    National Debt
    The interest on the national debt is seen as a problem, but again a government operating under the MMT Scope there's no need to raise money by borrowing (or taxing) in order to be able to spend it.  So no borrowing is needed "to fund the debt" the government just makes the payments it desires.

    Fallacy of the Money Multiplier
    When a bank makes a loan thus creating money (see Money based on debt below), contrary to the current idea that they are somehow restricted by the reserve requirement, in fact the bank borrows whatever reserve it needs during the next week's bank clearing cycle.  The problem of the bank lending only the principal amount (they do not lend the money needed to pay the interest) is solved because the other source of money is US government spending.  The idea of a money multiplier (Wiki) is not valid because the reserve ratio (percent of loans covered by reserves) is a false concept if the bank does not restrict loans based on reserves.  That's to say changing the reserve requirement does not change the multiplier.

    MMT Textbook

    The first college text book on MMT was published in 2016: Modern Monetary Theory and Practice: An Introductory Text by Prof W F Mitchell (Author),‎ Prof L R Wray (Contributor),‎ Prof M J Watts (Contributor).

    YouTube: MMT University and the New MMT Macroeconomics Textbook - MMT University -
    William Mitchell - Introduction
    (16:02) L. Randall Wray will discuss how the book treats Keynes
    (36:02) Martin Watts will consider some topics such as the labour market and international trade.
    (52:14) MMT University background
    (58:47) Questions
    H. R. 2990 National Emergency Employment Defense Act of 2011 - idea to change the law to allow MMT - not passed

    Modern Monetary Theory and Practice - an Introductory Text -
    Part 1 Introduction and Measurement
    • Public Purpose, How to think in a macro way.
    • History.
    • NIPA.
    • Labour Market measurement.
    • Methods, Tools and Techniques.
    • Framing and language.
    Part 2 Currency, Money and Banking
    • We meet the government early on.
    • We reach an understanding of balance sheets and banking
    Part 3 National Income, Output and Employment Determination
    • Keynes and the Classics
    • Effective Demand
    • Involuntary unemployment
    • AD and AS
    Part 4 Unemployment and Inflation
    • Phillips curve.
    • Buffer Stocks - core MMT.
    Part 5 Economic Policy in Open Economy
    • Core MMT
    • Fiscal space - real resources
    • Monetary Policy - balance sheets - reserves
    • Open Economy
    Part 6 Economic Stability
    • Investment
    Part 7

    Part 8 Contemporary Debates

    • Range of topics
    • Macro and the GFC
    • Recap
    Table of Contents:
    Chapter 1: Introduction & Measurement
    Chapter 2: How to Think and Do Macroeconomics
    Chapter 3: A Brief Overview of the Economic History and the Rise of Capitalism
    Chapter 4: The System of National Income and Product Accounts
    Chapter 5: Sectoral Accounting and the Flow of Funds
    Chapter 6: Introduction to Sovereign Currency: The Government and its Money
    Chapter 7: The Real Expenditure Model
    Chapter 8: Introduction to Aggregate Supply
    Chapter 9: Labour Market Concepts and Measurement Chapter
    10: Money and Banking
    Chapter 11: Unemployment and Inflation
    Chapter 12: Full Employment Policy
    Chapter 13: Introduction to Monetary and Fiscal Policy Operations
    Chapter 14: Fiscal Policy in Sovereign nations
    Chapter 15: Monetary Policy in Sovereign Nations
    It is intended as an introductory course in macroeconomics and the narrative is accessible to students of all backgrounds. All mathematical and advanced material appears in separate Appendices.

    April 2016 -  just read The Seven Frauds book (Ref) and have a bunch of MMT books on order.
    Here's an introduction to the idea:
    YouTube: L. Randall Wray -- MODERN MONEY: the way a sovereign currency "works" & there are a number of others by The Modern Money Network (YouTube).
    Here are the pop quiz questions asked in the beginning of the video:
    1. Just like a household, the government has to finance its spending out of its income or through borrowing. [ ]True  [ ]False
    2. The role of taxes is to provide finance for government spending. [ ]True  [ ]False
    3. The National Government borrows money from the private sector to finance the budget deficit. [ ]True  [ ]False
    4. By running budget surpluses the government takes pressure off interest rates because more funds are then available for private sector investment projects. [ ]True  [ ]False
    5. Persistent budget deficits will burden future generations with inflation and higher taxes.  [ ]True  [ ]False
    6. Running budget surpluses now will help build up the funds necessary to cope with the aging population in the future. [ ]True  [ ]False
    See answers below.

    When the US left the gold standard (see Gold below) a profound change occurred.  Maybe because of the way Nixon made the change most people did not recognize the HUGE  implications.  It may be more accurate to say that after 1971 how the economy really works was made clear.  It's not that the economy worked in a new and different way after 1971, but instead it was easier to see how it had always worked.

    Keynes recommends deficit government spending (Wiki: Fiscal Policy) when there's a recession as does MMT.  But a faster way would be to reduce taxes, for example have the U.S. Treasury (Wiki) pay both employer and employee FICA (Wiki) taxes.  The idea is that if the FICA taxes were eliminated the determination of Social Security benefits would be difficult, but with the Treasury paying the records would be as they are now.  Note that there's no problem funding Social Security (Wiki) since the U.S. is a sovereign country and our money is not constrained to gold or the euro.  Note that employment taxes hurt the economy, not what you what any tax to do, by penalizing employers, employees and drives jobs off shore and encourage automation.

    But the idea that lowering interest rates (Wiki: Monetary Policy, Quantitative easing) will stimulate the economy is wrong "you can not push a string" (Wiki).  If a business has no customers they don't care what the interest rate is.  Getting out of a depression or recession requires fiscal policy adjustments.

    A sovereign government (U.S., Japan, Turkey, &Etc. but not EU) puts money into circulation by spending.  Banks can also generate money but that's a small fraction of the total money.  The money has value because it's what's needed to pay taxes and other government fees.

    The purpose of taxation is not to raise money but rather to control the economy.  The government funds whatever it wants to do directly.  For example to pay for a war the government just writes checks to it's suppliers.  There was not a tax increase to pay for the recent wars.  The old idea that taxes are needed to pay for government programs is just flat out wrong.

    The government buys some goods and services and what's left the private sector can buy.  In a hot economy, where the government competes with the private sector for goods and services inflation results.

    The standard of living for U.S. citizens depends on the sum total of goods and services provided in the U.S. plus what is imported less what is exported.  Imports improve the standard of living for those getting them.  When China (or anyone) exports to the U.S. they are paid in U.S. denominated currency (dollars).  They can use those dollars to by treasury bonds which is many believe is funding the U.S. deficit, but that's not the case.  Suppose they get mad at us what can they do: buy stuff in the U.S., get U.S. paper money to take back to China, exchange U.S. dollars into some other currency.  If the later that would cause the exchange rate between China and the U.S. to change making the dollar weaker and Chinese goods more expensive.  But the U.S. has been trying to get China to increase the value of their money for many years and if they changed their dollars to something else it would have that effect, i.e. making Chinese imports more expensive and U.S. products less expensive.


    MMT predicted the problem with the EU in 2001, see Key Years above.
    When the EU (Wiki) was setup the European Central Bank (Wiki) was setup to maintain price stability.  But in times of recession the central bank needs to pump money into the economy, but the ECB does not have this power (limited to 3% of GDP) and the member countries in the EU do not have that power.  The problems will continue until there's a way to deficit spend money into circulation.  The IMF (Wiki) was founded at the Bretton Woods conference and was intended to work along side a gold standard, the Marshall Plan and other economics of the 1945 time frame, not the post 1971 non gold standard times.  It appears that the IMF is causing much more harm than good and needs to be shut down or totally revamped to take into account MMT.

    Note the ECB only has monetary policy tools (Wiki), it does not have fiscal policy tools.  MMT (or Keynes) tells us that fiscal policy is needed it time of a debt crisis (Wiki) but the EMU has no fiscal policy tools.

    The Stability Growth Pacts (Wiki) limit the debt of an EU member government so they can not use fiscal policy to recover from a recession.  The 2005 reform still kept t
    he ceilings of 3% for budget deficit and 60% for public debt were maintained.

    Falsification of neoliberal economics

    2018 August 14 - The Week: The biggest policy mistake of the last decade by Ryan L. Cooper - This article is the first one I've seen that goes to the idea of falsification that Karl Popper (see Progress & Science) says is a good way to disprove something.  Note that Ryan does not invoke MMT, but everything he is saying is consistent with MMT.

    The following "economists" got it very wrong:
    Alberto Alesina (Wiki) and Silvia Ardagna (Wiki)- "expansionary austerity," arguing that governments could increase taxes, cut spending, and grow strongly. (cherry picked data)
    Carmen Reinhart (Wiki) and Kenneth Rogoff (Wiki) - demonstrated an apparent trigger point of a 90 percent debt-to-GDP level beyond which more borrowing would cause economic stagnation (Causality backwards)
    European countries that subjected themselves to severe austerity regimens saw their employment and production collapse, just like Keynes would have predicted
    Michael Boskin (Wiki - Stanford), John Cogan (Stanford), Niall Ferguson (Wiki - Stanford), Kevin Hassett (Wiki) Douglas Holtz-Eakin (Wiki), Bill Kristol (Wiki), and John Taylor (Wiki)- signed open letter to then-Fed Chair Ben Bernanke warning that "[t]he planned asset purchases risk currency debasement and inflation."
    Tyler Cowen -book: The Great Stagnation: How America Ate All The Low-Hanging Fruit of Modern History, Got Sick, and Will (Eventually) Feel Better
    Robert Gordon - book: The Rise and Fall of American Growth The U.S. Standard of Living since the Civil War
    The two books argue ...
    that the slow post-recession growth problem was a structural one caused by lack of innovation, meaning the economy was running up against supply constraints. We simply couldn't grow any faster."
    If the above "economists" were correct then we would be seeing hyper inflation, but that's not happened then or now and if fact inflation is low.
    Barack Obama - claimed a "skills gap" (NYT: 16:30 Training Skilled Workers)
    Bill McBride - "stay-at-home dads"
    There's been no real wage growth to support the above two labor ideas. "There was no skills gap, nor an innovation shortage, nor an explosion of stay-at-home dads."
    All the above "experts" got it very wrong.
    The Deficit Lie: Exposing the Myth of the National Debt by Rick Boettger, 1994 (The Blue Paper?)
    This book was published in 1994, probably before the term "Modern Monetary Theory" was coined.  Written during the Clinton high tax low spending years (Wiki).
    Major Points:
    1. The so-called "deficit" is a myth.
    2. Our only problem is a shortage of cash.
    3.The solution: Spend more and tax less.
    In chapter 5 " The Big Lie: The inflationary Obsessions of the Economic Anorexics" Rick points out Milton Friedman's false idea that inflation is caused by the money supply without taking into account the total of goods and services.  Instead he has illustrations (Fig 6 Good Balance, Fig 7 Inflation Hawks' Nightmare, Fig 8 Recession &  Fig 9 Better Balance) showing a balance scale where goods and services are on one pan and money on the other pan.  It is not just the money but rather the balance between the money and goods and services that's important in relation to inflation. A rough cut is that the deficit should be about the size of the GNP (Wiki).

    Mentioned is the 1992 presidential debate (CNN:  | Clip Of Presidential Candidates Debate) where an audience member asks “How has the national debt personally affected each of your lives?” (Perot, Bush & Clinton), “And if it hasn’t, how can you honestly find a cure for the economic problems of the common people if you have no experience in what’s ailing them?”  When Bush answers he hems and haws, i.e. has no answer. The moderator changes the question for Clinton to "I think she means more the recession -- the economic problems today the country faces rather than the deficit." which Clinton easily answers.  The book makes the point that a tax cut and/or government check to someone, i.e. things associated with the national deficit, are good things for the people who receive them.  The woman who asked the question mistakenly thought the financial hardship her friends were suffering was caused by the deficit.  But in fact the deficit is a private sector savings, a good thing.

    Andrew Yang for President 2020

    While not an MMT person, Yang's ideas about the current state of the U.S. and his vision for our immediate future seem spot on. 
    See this YouTube: Joe Rogan Experience #1245 - Andrew Yang (1:52:02) -
    YouTube - CGP Grey: Humans Need Not Apply, Aug 13, 2014

    MMT References (and those who seem to be in line, but not necessarily promoting MMT)

    Warren Mosler
    (Wiki, Mosler Economics, YouTube: Modern Money Network, Amazon, Facebook, warren.mosler@gmail.com)
    2013 Feb 10 - HuffPost: The MMT Grand Bargain: Raise Social Security Benefits and Suspend FICA -

    Soft Currency Economics II: The Origin of Modern Monetary Theory
    (MMT - Modern Monetary Theory) (Volume 1) 2013 by
    Warren Mosler - on order

    The 7 Deadly Innocent Frauds of Economic Policy 2010 by Warren Mosler (free pdf version, Video) He's the father of MMT.

    HuffPost - 2011 May 25: Why US Solvency Is Not An Issue - best details on the Italian bond story.
    Is the Ryan Budget the Next Bachmann Budget? 2012 by Warren Mosler -

    The Certainty of Debt and Taxes - The Fiscal Cliff Burden of Proof 2012 by Warren Mosler -

    Demand Leakages: The 800lb Economist in the Room 2012 by Warren Mosler -

    YouTube: Warren Mosler, Issuers vs Users of a Currency 2012 by Warren Mosler (5:28) - with inserted video clips of Bernanke and Greenspan (Recommended short video)

    Italy Then and Now.pdf 2012 by Warren Mosler - how joining the EMU caused a lot of problems for them. "The euro zone is in 'Ponzi' until the ECB writes the check"

    Rites of Passage 2001 by Warren Mosler predicting the problems now facing the Euro - "The market’s arrows will inflict an initially narrow liquidity crisis, which will immediately infect and rapidly arrest the entire euro payments system."

    NEP: Warren Mosler’s talk in Chianciano, Italy, January 11, 2014 "Oltre L’Euro: La Sinistra. La Crisi. L’Alternativa" (Beyond The Euro: The Left. The Crisis. The Alternative)- his words are the text of the article.

    Modern Monetary Theory.pdf - a Primer on the Operational Realities of the Monetary System by Scott Fullwiler (posted on Warren's web page) -
    MMT Conference Oct 23, 2017 - Warren Mosler (about 1 hour) - His book Soft Currency Economics has been polished for over 25 years and it's all consistent with mainstream ideas.
    • The purpose of taxation is to create unemployment (in societies where there are no taxes there is no unemployment)
    • (15:26) "Unemployment is always an unspent income story",  not automation or productivity (which a good thing).
    • (16:51) Trade deficit a good thing.
    • (19:29) "MMT is prepared to answer the new questions that come up." Low interest rates create savings desire.
    • (24:03) Zimbawae & Reimar Germany - MMT has the only valid of explanation of inflation.
      The currency is a monopoly.  The people need the government's money in order to pay taxes.
      Better price stability if there's a buffer stock of workers rather than unemployed people.
      Right now we are using unemployment to control inflation but it does not do a good job.
      A "buffer stock of workers" (job guarantee) will do a better job.
      (24:21) Fox Business News - Stewart Varney (Wiki): Spending Necessary for Economic Recovery - Mosler asks for a payroll (FICA) tax holiday (0:35) and the host says "hold on, hold on, you want more spending".  The idea "printing money" is based on the linkage between gold and currency and is no longer a valid concept.
    • (25:39) MMT is the only valid explanation of inflation there is.  There's no dispute about.
    • (29:27) the book "Soft Currency Economics" has not had any part refuted. Sound bites: "the public debt is just the Dollars spent by the government that has not yet been used to pay taxes." "The only financial problem related to the debt is inflation."
    • (35:29) FAQs:
      How are  you going to pay for it? Credit account at the central bank just like all government spending.
      Aren't taxes required to fund the spending?  No.
      Would this cause inflation?  It might, but the Fed's inflation target is higher than where we are now, so a good thing.
      Why do politicians not switch to MMT? Because the voters have not yet embraced it.
      How does Social Security work? Just accounting, not money.
      Should the Fed be ended? All profits go to Treasury.  Fed works at the whim of Congress.
      How about the effect on the dollar? The exchange rate changes independently of us.
      There's no unemployment in non monetary societies (animals or human).
      If CBO scored medicare for all inflation would not change or go down.
    MMT: Warren Mosler on why Quantitative Easing is NOT money printing, Aug 10, 2016
    Warren Mosler joins Real Progressives Host Steve Grumbine to discuss Banking in a Modern -
    • GOP tax plan - not a favor to corporations, it's political, all corporate taxes are a pass through to consumers
    • (5:25) Sanders came out with medicare for all but adds big tax to pay for it - medicare for all is deflationary, not tax needed.  Headline left botched it. Paul Krugram, Dean Baker are other examples of left not understanding.
    • (26:55) Bitcoin - does not contribute to medicare for all or any other social program, it's just a money substitute.
    • (35:44) Steven Grumbine background
    • (41:42) Salient points of MMT:
    • (49:52) Petro Dollar (aka: reparation) -  nonsense  - apple example where their money is located makes no difference, no liquidity problem,
    • (1:00:42) "The public debt is the public money supply." Example: coins found in public places in Pompeii.  The government spent those coins and the taxes did not collect all of them so leaving some in private hands.
    Why MMT? A discussion with Warren Mosler - 2018 February 24
    over 200 questions answered.
    YouTube: The Basics of Modern Money by Modern Money Basics (6:29)
    YouTube: Warren Mosler MMT: Unemployment, dogs and bones 1:17 - 
    YouTube: Warren Mosler: What Modern Monetary Theory Tells Us About Economic Policy - Published on Jul 23, 2013
    YouTube: Mosler & Keen on Macroeconomics (edited) -
    L. Randall Wray (Wiki, Amazon, UofKS, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, Vimeo)
    Mar 15, 2018 YouTube - Deficit OwlsWhat Caused The Global Financial Crisis?
    Understanding Modern Money:The Key to Full Employment and Price Stability 2006 by L. Randall Wray (free KindleUnlimited version)

    MMT, The Euro and The Greatest Prediction of the Last 20 Years (free html) based on a 1992 article by L. Randall Wray - predictions of MMT

    Modern Money Theory: A Primer on Macroeconomics for Sovereign Monetary Systems 2nd Ed - 2012, 2015, L. Randall Wray, Palgrave MacMillian, ISBN 978-1-137-53990-8  (see on line as MMT Primer, including responses to readers comments)
    pg 131; "A government that operates with a nonsovereign currency, using a foreign currency or a domestic currency convertible to foreign currency (or to precious metal at a fixed exchange rate) faces solvency risk.  However, a government that spends using its own floating and nonconvertible currency cannot be forced into default. ...  This is why a country like Japan can run government debt-to-GDP ratios that are more than twice as high as the "high debt" Euro nations (the "PIIGS": Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain) while still enjoying extremely low interest rates on sovereign debt."

    pg 141: "Ideally, it is best if tax revenue moves counter cyclically - increasing in expansion and falling in recession.  That helps to make government's net contribution to the economy counter-cyclical, which helps to stabilize demand."
    YouTube: L. Randall Wray - Modern Money Theory: Intellectual Origins and Policy Implications - summary below:
    Theoretical basis of MMT:
    Georg Friedrich Knapp (Wiki) - The State Theory of Money 1905 - money must have no intrinsic value and strictly be used as governmentally-issued token, i.e., fiat money.
    Abba P. Lerner (Wiki) - Functional Finance 1943 (Wiki) - government should finance itself to meet explicit goals, such as taming the business cycle, achieving full employment, ensuring growth, and low inflation.
    Beardsley Ruml (Wiki) - Taxes for revenue are obsolete (free pdf)  1946 - We learned from W.W. II that taxes do not fund spending.
    Hyman Minsky (Wiki) - Financial Instability Hypothesis (Wiki) - "Stability is destabilizing". 3 types of borrowers: hedge borrowers, speculative borrowers & Ponzi borrowers.  People are momentum investors by nature, not value investors.
    Alan Greenspan (Wiki) - the Greenspan put (Wiki):supposedly eliminated risk in the financial markets, but, according to Minsky, that increased risk.  "Matt Taibbi described the Greenspan put and its bad consequences saying: "every time the banks blew up a speculative bubble, they could go back to the Fed and borrow money at zero or one or two percent, and then start the game all over", thereby making it "almost impossible" for the banks to lose money. He also called Greenspan a "classic con man" who, through political savvy, "flattered and bullshitted his way up the Matterhorn of American power and...jacked himself off to the attention of Wall Street for 20 consecutive years".
    Ben Bernanke (Wiki) - The Great Moderation (Wiki) aided by the Taylor Principle (Wiki) - The pronouncement of a new stability caused instability.
    Employer of last resort (Wiki) - the government offers jobs to anyone who wants one
    On Taxes (goal is to drive the money, change behavior and be progressive):
    Duping Dopes will not work - BitCoin will not succeed since that's their model
    Taxing work is bad idea (Wiki: Payroll Tax, FICA) - regressive, discourages work, discourages employing people, favors moving jobs outside America, favors replacing people with robots
    Taxing corporations is a bad tax: drives them out of America, encourages cutting deals
    The Income tax: he's neutral
    Likes taxing bads: alcohol, tobacco, pollution, financial transactions,
    A Hut tax based on cubic feet of your house (eco friendly).
    Inheritance tax to stop family fortunes he likes.
    Movie: Boom Bust Boom (IMDB, Netflix, Trailer) - Randall Wray is one of the people interviewed & and some attention to Hyman Minsky (Wiki).

    Levy Institute
    The War On Poverty after 40 years, A Minskyuan Assessment, No. 78, 2004 (pdf) - "the real flaw in the WOP was that it lacked job-creation initiatives of the type developed by President Roosevelt during the Great Depression."..."Instead of providing th impoverished with an opportunity to work, it provided them with the opportunity to learn how to work."...“policy weapons which are sufficient to move aneconomy from slack to full employment are not sufficient to sustain full employment” ...
    "Minsky’s fundamental argument is simple:
    (1) poverty is largely an employment problem;
    (2) tight full employment improves income at the bottom of the wage spectrum; and
    (3) a program of direct job creation is necessary to sustain tight full employment. Thus, he argued that a program of direct job creation was “a necessary ingredient of any war against poverty” (Minsky 1965, p. 175).
    As Minsky put it: “The New Deal, with its WPA, NYA, and CCC, took workers as they were and generated jobs for them....The resurrection ofWPA and allied projects should be a major weapon of the War on Poverty” (1965, p. 195).

    Improving Governance of the Government Safety Net in Financial Crisis, 2012(pdf)  -
    Chapter 2. Summary of the Causes of the Global Financial Crisis: A Minskyan View -
    Movie (YouTube):  John Maynard Keynes - Life, Ideas, Legacy (@52:48)
    Paul Samuelson: "
    “I think there is an element of truth in the view that the superstition that the budget must be balanced at all times [is necessary]. Once it is debunked [that] takes away one of the bulwarks that every society must have against expenditure out of control. There must be discipline in the allocation of resources or you will have anarchistic chaos and inefficiency. And one of the functions of old fashioned religion was to scare people by sometimes what might be regarded as myths into behaving in a way that the long-run civilized life requires. We have taken away a belief in the intrinsic necessity of balancing the budget if not in every year, [then] in every short period of time. If Prime Minister Gladstone came back to life he would say “uh, oh what you have done” and James Buchanan argues in those terms. I have to say that I see merit in that view.”

    In other words, the need to balance the budget over some time period determined by the movements of celestial objects, or over the course of a business cycle is a myth, an old-fashioned religion. But that superstition is seen as necessary because if everyone realizes that government is not actually constrained by the necessity of balanced budgets, then it might spend “out of control”, taking too large a percent of the nation’s resources. Samuelson sees merit in that view. Ref.: PAUL SAMUELSON ON DEFICIT MYTHS by L. Randall Wray)
    Frank Newman (Wiki, Amazon, )
    Six Myths that Hold Back America: And What America Can Learn from the Growth of China's Economy 2011 by Frank Newman - on order

    Freedom from National Debt – May 2, 2013 by Frank Newman - on order

     Vimeo (2012, Suny Global Center): “Six Myths That Hold Back America- and What America Can Learn From the Growth of China’s Economy” - (1:20:26) Frank Newman (Title is book title)
    The six myths:
    1. Asian nations are bankrolling the U.S.
    2. Treasuries "crowd out" financing for the private sector.
    3. If everyone tries to save more, the nation will save more, and Investment, GDP, and employment will increase.
    4. If the deficit is reduced, then national Saving and Investment will increase.
    5. Deficits create great burdens of repayment and taxes for our children.
    6. If the U.S. does not get its fiscal deficit reduced soon, U.S. Treasuries will face the same problems as bonds of Greece and Ireland.
    Mathew Forstater (Wiki, UMKC Pubs)
    Little Book of Big Ideas: Economics 2007 by Mathew Forstater - 2 pages for each about 5 dozen economists
    Functional Finance and Full Employment: Lessons from Lerner for Today.pdf , 1999 (while not a prediction of the GFC it talks about problems with the classical view)
    Wynne Godley  (Wiki, Amazon, ) - WIki: Sectoral balances - Federal Reserve Economic Database (Wiki: FRED: MBST, ) -
    Predicted the Global Financial Crisis

    The Observer Aug 31, 1997: Curried Emu - the meal that fails to nourish by Wynne Goodley -

    London Review: Maastricht and All That Oct 1992 by Wynne Godley - "The central idea of the Maastricht Treaty (1991 Wiki) is that the EC countries should move towards an economic and monetary union, with a single currency managed by an independent central bank. But how is the rest of economic policy to be run?"

     Sectoral balances (Wiki) simplified version:  [Public/Government] + [Private] + [Foreign] = 0
    This means when the US government runs a deficit then there is a surplus in the private and foreign sectors.
    "According to the sectoral balances approach, austerity can be counterproductive in a downturn due to a significant private-sector financial surplus, in which consumer savings is not fully invested by businesses."
    Michael Hudson (Wiki, Amazon, YouTube,
    Predicted the Global Financial Crisis

      Super Imperialism: The Economic Strategy of American Empire by Michael Hudson 1972 - may be the first book to describe American Dollar Hegemony (Wiki: Dollar hegemony)

    Killing the Host: How Financial Parasites and Debt Bondage Destroy the Global Economy by Michael Hudson (Wiki: )2015 - looks very interesting

    The Monster: How a Gang of Predatory Lenders and Wall Street Bankers Fleeced America--and Spawned a Global Crisis

     Episode #91.2 // Michael Hudson on Killing the Host - 1 hour audio interview based on the book
    Government Debt and Deficits Are Not the Problem. Private Debt Is. - 2013 paper
    The Economic Crisis & Crisis Theory II 2014 - includes a video Alan Freeman Consumption, Profit and Finance: why can't the left get it right? (0:00 to 21:45), Andrew Kliman Were Corporations--or Corporate Executives--Really Hogging a Bigger Share of the Income Workers Produce? No. (23:00 to 45:35), Michael Hudson The New Austerity: Feeding the FIRE sector overhead (46:45 to 1:50:00), Q&A (1:50:30 to end)
    Banks through out history, even when Marx was writing, only lent money to already existing products, not to industry or business.
    Michael Hudson, Financial Parasites, Left Forum 2014 Excerpts- Parasite different than Vampire Squid - an excellent 30 minute explanation of his idea
    Michael Hudson: Money & Debt 2012 - historical overview and how canceling debts makes sense.
    MMT vs. Austrian School Debate 2013 - Warren Mosler (Wiki, Amazon, home page) for MMT (Wiki) - The Austrian ideas work with fixed exchange rates, but not when rates float, so after 1971 no longer works.  In today's floating rate world MMT describes how things work.

    Bill Mitchell (Wiki, Amazon, YouTube, Web Page, Newcastle, blog)
    Excellent Intro to MMT: YouTube - Bill Mitchell: Demystifying Modern Monetary Theory - Bill coined the name MMT.  Weimar Republic (Wiki) and Zimbabwe (Wiki) inflation explained, employer of last resort background

    Reframing the Debate: Economics for a Progressive Politics Q&A, London - Merge central bank with treasury, (0:17:59) do away with debt management agencies "Public debt is just corporate welfare".
    There's a problem with merging the central bank into Treasury in that the treasury is controlled by politicians and without a well functioning government (which we don't have in the US) there will be runaway spending.
    YouTube - Professor Bill Mitchell - The Government Chooses the Unemployment Rate -
    YouTube - Professor Bill Mitchell - The need for full employment -
    YouTube -
    Professor William Mitchell - Fiscal Myths -
    Billy Blog:
    Modern monetary theory and inflation – Part 1 -
    Billy Blog: The dreaded NAIRU is still about! - Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (Wiki) is a false idea.
    Billy Blog: The Great Moderation myth - (Wiki) - Bernanke should quit or be sacked -
    Economic Outlook - billy blog: A surplus of trade discussions - "exports are a cost and imports are a benefit"
    Scott Fullwiler (Wiki, Wartburg College, YouTube, Amazon)
    Scott Tweeted link to: Master's Thesis: Money and the Fiscal Space of Monetarily Sovereign Governments: The Case of Denmark (pdf) August 30, 2018, Asker Voldsgaard Ruge -
    "Never let the facts get in the way of a good story is a well-known proverb. However, the story of the financially constrained government, rooted in metallism, is particularly debilitating for democratic politics. The deconsolidated government accounting convention is an institutional habit, which could be abandoned with no material effect to the economy, according to this analysis. However, it would remove the psychological effect on the public of having a government account that seemingly could reach zero if market confidence or taxes deteriorate. This psychological feature and misreading of the financial system galvanises politicians to implement otherwise unpopular and imprudent macroeconomic policies. A paradigm shift to functional finance may revitalise the post-democracies ridden with various legitimacy crises by encouraging citizens to deliberate over the state’s public purpose rather than taking a backseat to technocrats who claim to safeguard future welfare by ‘balancing the books’. Government spending should be constrained indeed, but by budgeting, accounting and democratic politics."
    New Economic Perspectives - papers - Modern Money Theory: A Response to Critics -
    CBO—Still Out of Paradigm after All These Years July 20, 2014 (re-posted April 2018 after the latest CBO paper)
    Twitter: Explaining Medicare funding(US entitlements) -
    There are 3 separate issues regarding ability to provide SS/Medicare in future years--financial ability to pay, legal authority to pay, & productive capacity to provide increasing standard of living to future workers & non-workers. Unfortunately, these 3 separate issues are not kept separate in public discourse by journalists, policy makers, SS/Medicare trustees, and even economists.

    First, though, let's understand that the SS/Medicare trust funds are about the LEGAL authority to provide benefits. They are not about FINANCIAL ability to provide benefits . . .. In the future, when/if the payroll tax does not cover legal authority to pay all benefits & SS/Medicare "cash in" the bonds owned by trust funds, govt will get legal authority to pay benefits via general revenues or selling securities (deficit).  But this is exactly what govt would do WITHOUT trust funds--get legal authority to pay benefits beyond payroll tax revenues either from general revenues or selling securities (deficit).  Because govt does same thing w/ or w/o trust funds, trust funds do not provide FINANCIAL ability to pay, only LEGAL ability. But just as sufficient balances in trust funds provides no FINANCIAL ability to pay shortfall is not a legit argument against FINANCIAL ability to pay.  FINANCIAL ability to provide future benefits is NEVER in question for a monetary sovereign. FINANCIAL ability to pay is a POLICY CHOICE, not a constraint. Greenspan explains this here very clearly in first 18 seconds
    LEGAL authority to pay is also a POLICY CHOICE, not a constraint. For example, Govt could pass law giving trust funds 100% interest/year (remember, trust funds aren't about FINANCE, so not a problem FINANCIALLY), which would provide LEGAL authority to pay SS/Medicare FOREVER.  Another example of providing LEGAL authority to pay future benefits is to pass a law saying govt will pay full benefits. explains here that we already do this in some cases.  FINANCIAL ability to pay and LEGAL authority to pay future benefits are POLICY CHOICES. They are UNCONSTRAINED by anything other than policy makers simply writing a law saying the benefits will be paid. Anyone who says otherwise is muddling the 3 separate issues.  However, ability to provide future standards of living to retirees and rest of population w/o cutting benefits IS a constraint. If you just run deficits to pay benefits in future, if productive capacity is insufficient you will get inflation, not more real goods/services.  Greenspan again (B.C. tries to) explains this clearly here starting at 45 seconds in
    Lastly, some are talking about Fed simply transferring its govt bonds to trust funds as way to ensure future entitlements. This is simply a transfer of assets from one agency of govt to another, and shows clearly that LEGAL authority to pay is always a POLICY CHOICE ...BUT, Fed transfer of its securities does not work under current law because to debit Fed assets you have to debit Fed capital (equity). Fed is legally required to send its retained earnings to Tsy, so they are part of govt budget position . . .So, if Fed transfers its securities and debits its capital, under current law, this would increase current and future govt deficits by same amount until Fed's capital was built back up.  Of course, yet again, you could simply change the law and do some creative accounting on Fed's balance sheet for this debit of assets and capital. So, again, LEGAL authority to pay is a POLICY CHOICE. 

    In sum, always remember that govt ability to LEGAL authority and FINANCIAL ability to pay benefits are NOT CONSTRAINTS, they are CHOICES, just like govt chooses to pay for wars, cut corporate taxes, etc., all the time. It can ALWAYS choose to authorize and pay SS/Medicare.  The only actual hard constraint on future entitlements is PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY to pay these benefits and maintain standards of living for others at same time. 

    Thus it is NOT useful for informed policy debates to have CBO & SS/Medicare trustees to forecast "solvency" of trust funds in the manner they do now.  However, it WOULD BE useful for them to say "our analysis shows govt has CHOSEN not to legally fund these programs in full after 20XX; if it CHOOSES to do so w/o taxes/spending cuts, given assumptions in our econ model we forecast inflation to be X%."
    Stephanie Kelton (her home page, New Economic Perspectives, Wiki, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, YouTube)

    Vimeo: Stephanie Kelton, Alan Greenspan vs Paul Ryan on pensions - a clip from "Angry Birds"

    Forbes: Watch Out, MMT's About, As Bernie Sanders Hires Stephanie Kelton - Jan 2015: Bernie Sanders has appointed Stephanie as chief economic adviser for the Senate Budget committee's Democratic minority (Wiki).

    YouTube: Stephanie Kelton -The Angry Birds Approach to Understanding Deficits in the Modern Economy - 2014 - video clips saying the national debt is a problem (including Cenk and Bernie).
    "Capitalism Runs on Sales - Spending creates Income - income creates sales - sales create jobs"
    Republicans say, We have a spending problem!"; Democrats say, "We have a revenue problem!" - both lead to fewer jobs
    Calming Fact: "As the sole manufacturer of dollars, whose debt is denominated in dollars, the U.S. government cannever become insolvent, i.e. unable to pay its bills.  In this sense, the government is not dependent of credit markets to remain operational.  Moreover, there will always be a market for U.S. government debt at home because the U.S. government has the only means of creating risk-free dollar-denominated assets." St. Louis Federal Reserve.
    "[A] government cannot become insolvent with respect to obligations in its own currency.  A fiat money system, like the ones we have today, can produce such claims without limit". Alan Greenspan 1997 congressional testimony

    (50:33) "Every single time that the federal government's deficit gets too small, which here gets to be below it's average of 3.1%, we've had a recession.  Every single time."

    Stephanie Kelton -The Economic Movement of Bernie Sanders - she was Bernie's economic advisor for his campaign
    But Can We Afford It? Economic Priorities for the Next Administration, Jan 11, 2017 - Trump elected, but not yet inaugurated.
    National Deficits, Debts and Dodo Politics by Dr Stephanie Kelton MMT, May 3, 2017 - similar to the above
    Best Of 2017: What You Think You Know About Money is Wrong w/ Stephanie Kelton -

    2018 March 19 - Stephanie Kelton is writing for Bloomberg: Use Fiscal Policy, Not the Fed, to Fight the Next Slump -
    HuffPost - 2018 May 20:
    Stephanie Kelton Has The Biggest Idea In Washington -


    The American Interest - The Right’s Straw Left by Ben Judah (Tweeted by Stephanie) - mentions :
    Great Democracy Initiative - Central Banking for All: A Public Option for Bank Accounts introduction - pdf -

    "Currently, banks are allowed to have accounts with the Federal Reserve that come with a lot of privileges: higher interest rates, instant clearing, and the security provided by being nondefaultable. Authors Morgan Ricks, John Crawford, and Lev Menand argue for ending these exclusive privileges by offering “FedAccounts” to everyone. FedAccounts would be a public option for the unbanked and underbanked while also providing substantial benefits to businesses and our economy as a whole.

    FedAccounts would provide the following features to all Americans, as well as American businesses: no fees or minimum balances; the same interest rate that commercial banks get; and no interchange fees for debit card payments. Also, payments between FedAccounts would clear in real time, and there would be no need for federal deposit insurance, as FedAccount balances would be sovereign and nondefaultable. The lack of fees and minimum balances would remove obstacles that exclude millions of Americans from our financial system, and the perks of central banking would greatly increase the cost and efficiency of transactions for businesses.

    This report details the FedAccounts proposal and its benefits. It also discusses the merits of FedAccounts over other reform proposals like narrow banking, postal banking, and cryptocurrencies."

    Bernie Sanders & reform of the Federal Reserve
    October 20, 2011: Top Economists to Advise Sanders on Fed Reform - Joseph Stiglitz (Wiki, Amazon), Jeffrey Sachs (Wiki, Amazon), Robert Reich (Wiki, Amazon, TPP), James K. Galbraith (Wiki, Amazon), Lawrence Mishel (Wiki, Amazon),  William K. Black (Wiki, Amazon), Nomi Prins (Wiki, Amazon), William Greider (Wiki, Amazon), Jane D'Arista (Wiki, Amazon), Tim Canova (Wiki, Amazon), Robert Johnson (Wiki, Amazon), Dean Baker (Wiki, Amazon, TPP@13:25), Gerald Epstein (Wiki, Amazon), Robert D. Auerbach (Wiki, Amazon), Roger Hickey (Wiki, Amazon), Robert L. Borosage (Wiki, Amazon), Robert Pollin (Wiki, Amazon), L. Randall Wray (see above), Stephanie Kelton (see above).

    YouTube: Minsky, Inequality, and the Monetary:Fiscal Policy Outlook, S4, April 2016 (Slides as pdf, Scott's slides.pdf) - about her time in Washington DC, CBO,
    Steve Keen: Private Debt - Keen's solution People's  
    Steve Keen (Kingston University, Wiki, YouTube, Steve Keen's Debtwatch)

    Predicted the Global Financial Crisis
    Debunking Economics: The Naked Emperor of the Social Sciences by Steve Keen, 2001 - Talks about the problem with the EMU before it happened.  Dec 2016, reading.  Highly recommended.  For more on this book see below.

    Has a few areas that interest me.
    1. new thinking about how the economy works, for example including energy in addition to labor and capital: "a worker without energy is a corpse, a machine without power is a sculpture".  Also the importance of private sector debt in relation to growth and GDP.

    2. In college (San Jose State) Louis O. Kelso was promoting Two-Factor Theory: The Economics of Reality where the example I remember was two house moving companies.  One based on the use of a horse and buggy, the other on the use of a modern moving van.  At the end of a year's operation the two questions are: Who worked harder (ans. the horse and buggy company), and Who made more money (ans. the moving van company).
    Kelso attributed the higher income of the moving van company to the higher amount of capital used to acquire the moving van.  But . . . Keen probably would say another difference was the difference in energy.  i.e. One horsepower (literally) vs. maybe 500 horsepower.  Thinking about this example a year or two ago I saw the idea that energy impacts not only a business, but also our day to day life, since there are many motors in pretty much every house.  746 Watts of electricity is equivalent to one horsepower.  A trained cyclist can produce about 400 Watts.  So each 400 Watts of electricity consumed for an hour is about the same as having a servant working for that hour.

    3. modeling using the "Minsky" software.  But this appears to me like a first grader working with SPICE (Wiki, example) modeling that's very basic and he makes no validation to real world data.

       Note that when tube based electronics were at their peak there were no computers or SPICE modeling and so plots and equations were used to analyze tube circuits.  Early on the grid was treated as independent from the other electrodes, then Miller (Wiki) saw that there was capacitance between the grid and plate which explained tube operation much better than the old way.  The feeling I get watching the "Minsky" related videos is that they are far from discovering the economic equivalent to the Miller effect and so the models today do not have much value, maybe in a few decades they will.

    Debtwatch Paradoy: CERN Discovers New Particle Called The FERIR -

    "Now that economists have explained the persistence of the ZLB, they can now turn their attention to understanding its perverse effects. The real problem of the ZLB for economists has been that it inverts the status and behaviour of all other sub-economic particles. In particular:

    These inversions are causing real problems for economists, who find themselves arguing for policies they used to oppose. Professor Summers hopes that knowledge of the existence of the FERIR will make it easier for economists to argue that night is day and rainbows are grey, as they provide policy advice in these troubled times."

    CERN: Crazy Economic Ration­al­iza­tions for aNoma­lies (Paradoy)
    FERIR: Full Employ­ment Real Inter­est Rate (Paradoy)
    GFC: Global Finan­cial Cri­sis (Wiki) MMT says caused by high debt which in turn was caused by Clinton budget surplus (sucked much needed money out of private sector)
    Growth: Economic (Wiki) MMT says "trickle down" (Wiki) does not work, but "bubble up) does work.
    HMD: Helicopter Money Drops (Wiki)
    Inflation:  (Wiki) MMT says caused by government competing with private sector
    NAIRU: Non-Accel­er­at­ing Infla­tion Rate of Unem­ploy­ment (Wiki) - MMT says false concept
    ZLB: Zero Lower Bound (Wiki)

    Debunking Economics: The Naked Emperor of the Social Sciences by Steve Keen, 2001 - Talks about the problem with the EMU before it happened.  Dec 2016, reading.  Highly recommended.
    This book shows that microeconomics (Wiki) is based on a number of false beliefs.  The first few chapters are devoted to supply and demand curves and the numerous false underlying assumptions.
    For example that a factory making a commodity will first improve it's profitability after hiring more workers will increase, but at some point hiring more workers will decrease profitability.
    The book does not mention that there are very few commodities being manufactured anymore.  I've heard a rumor that there is a local hardware store that sells nails from a bin.  The hardware stores near me all sell nails packaged in boxes with brand labels.  Propane is a commodity, but is delivered in trucks from different suppliers and there is a huge difference in the price depending on the supplier so, at least here, propane is not a commodity.
    This book debunks microeconomics.

    The book: Zombie Economics: How Dead Ideas Still Walk among Us, May 6, 2012, by John Quiggin debunks some key ideas of macroeconomics. Highly recommended.

    Abba P. Lerner  (Wiki)

    Father of Functional Finance (Wiki).
    See the paper Functional Finance and Full Employment: Lessons from Lerner for Today, 1999 (above)

    The following copied from Wiki:
    The principal ideas behind functional finance can be summarized as:[1]

    Paul Romer (Wiki,  paulromer.net, NYU Stern, World Bank, Aplia)

    Known for Basic Income (Wiki) and Endogenous growth theory (Wiki

    The Trouble With Macroeconomics 14 Sep 2016 - the source for some of Steve Keen's papers.
    Trouble with Macroeconomics, Update, 21 Sep 2016 -
    YouTube: Short-Run Shocks; Long-Run Pessimism Sep 19, 2016 related to the paper - the book mentioned is "Population Bomb by Paul R. Ehrlich (Wiki)

    Mark Blyth (Wiki, Amazon, Brown University, Personal web page, YouTube:
    Watson Institute & Mark

    Mark Blyth: The AthensLive Interview (Jun 26, 2016) -
    YouTube: Blyth Devastates Congress' Approach to Budget; Mark Blyth ─ Global Trumpism (Sept 29 2016) -
    Points out that "Greed" has been a constant over time and so can not be used to explain the GFC.
    Talking tax reform with Mark Blyth and John Friedman, 15:48, Dec 5, 2017 -
    Mark Blyth- Why Do People Continue To Believe Stupid Economic Ideas -

    John Quiggin (Wiki, Univ of Queensland, Home page, YouTube (8 years old), 

    Zombie Economics: How Dead Ideas Still Walk Among Us, 2010 - Points out logical fallacies and examples where the idea is shown to fail in a big way, yet it is still believed.  Debunks key macroeconomic ideas.
    Debunking Economics: The Naked Emperor of the Social Sciences by Steve Keen, 2001 - Debunks the core ideas in microeconomics.

    A chapter is devoted to each of these:

    YouTube: Boom Bust: [87] John Quiggin on zombie economics & Steve Keen talks reality of endogenous money Mar 25, 2014 -

    Money for nothing? - Oct 18, 2011 - Why MMT can not provide unlimited money + many comments

    Dean Baker (Wiki, DeanBaker.net, Center for Economic and Policy Research,

    Predicted the Global Financial Crisis
    The Nation:  Bush’s House of Cards - As bad as Bush's economic record is, it would appear far worse if not for the housing bubble, Aug 9, 2004

    Getting-Back-Full-Employment: A Better Bargain for Working People, 2013 - debunks NAIRU,
    False Profits: Recovering from the Bubble Economy, 2010 - they are: Alan Greenspan, Ben Bernanke,
    Social Security: The Phony Crisis, 1999 - Ironically, the only real threat to Social Security comes not from any fiscal or demographic constraints but from the political assaults on the program by would-be "reformers".
    The United States Since 1980, 2007
    Plunder and Blunder: The Rise and Fall of the Bubble Economy, 2009, 2010 (Written Oct 2008)- Ch 2 The Clinton Era and the Origins of the Stock Bubble, Ch4 The Beginning of the Housing Bubble (In the late 1990s.."But in most areas around the country at that time, there was a close relationship between the cost of renting and owning comparable units",

    CEPR - Getting Rid of the Budget Deficit the Clinton/Gingrich Way - "...we did not actually move from large deficits to surpluses by tax increases and/or spending cuts, we did it through a strong economy a..."
    Robert Shiller (Wiki, Yale
    Predicted the Global Financial Crisis
    Nouriel Roubini (Wiki, Stern School of Business NYU,

    Predicted the Global Financial Crisis
    Econo Monitor: The Rising Risk of a Systemic Financial Meltdown: The Twelve Steps to Financial Disaster,  February 5th, 2008
    Econo Monitor: Bob Shiller is Sharply Shrill…and the Risks of a Housing-Led Systemic Financial Crisis, Aug 30, 2006

    Ann Pettifor (Wiki, PRIME,

    Predicted the Global Financial Crisis
    Book: The Coming First World Debt Crisis, 2006 (Amazon) on order

    Started reading:  She mentions the UK  "Competition and Credit Control" in Sept 1971 as a turning point rather than "Nixon Shock".  I wonder if they are related?
    She agrees with Michael Hudson
    that bankers need to be removed from their current parasitic position and go back to serving the productive economy.  That's to say that making money using money is not productive.
    As of 2017 it appears that we are still in a bubble economy where prices are inflated by the very low interest rates.  But raising rates will burst the bubble.
    See Effect of Interest Rates on Home Values

    YouTube: Ann Pettifor - How Society Can Break The Despotic Power of Finance - Warwick Economics Summit 2014 - If an airplane crashes because of how it's designed it would be an outrage to blame the crash on human error, but in the case of the recent financial crisis, economists blamed it on human error (greed) rather than on their policies.  Hyack, Friedman & Eugene Fama (2013 Nobel prize winner) are to blame.  Savings are not needed to fund investment.  There is no such thing as Fractional Reserve Banking since 1694.  Commercial banks do NOT lend the deposits of savers, they do not need deposits in order to lend. BitCoin is based on mistrust Ponzi).

    YouTube: Austerity: Ann Pettifor - Debunking the myths - "Sovereign governments can not go bankrupt",

    YouTube: TEDxUtrechtUniversity - Ann Pettifor - Decarbonising the economy: How we can finance it. - How banking really works, credit is not subject to the laws of supply and demand, Limits on money creation:
    too much credit->Inflation, not enough credit->unemployment & deflation,  credit at interest rates too high to pay back-> defaults, ecological cost to to much credit
    She says the Fed deregulated credit in 1971 causing inflation.  Household consumption rises dramatically starting in 1971 because of credit cards.
    Need turn banks from being masters of the economy to servants of the economy.
    Although she uses the year 1971 in many places, "Nixon Shock" is not mentioned, but rather the UK the adoption of "Competition and Credit Control" in Sept 1971 (Wiki) which used reserve asset ratios (a false concept according to MMT) instead of lending ceilings. 

    Ann Pettifor Interview Feb 17, 2018 (13:34) -
    Prime Economics: On tectonic plates, the economic system & the economics profession  25 April 2018 - "But while the theory is faithfully taught, and policies implemented, the economics profession collectively still fails to understand the operation of the system – or so it seems to both outsiders and insiders. The economics profession, it would seem, has reached the stage the geology profession reached fifty years ago – before the discovery of tectonic plates." . . ."... society demands to know why economists have not “discovered how the economy really works”

    Twitter by Ann:
    The Rise of Finance and the Fall of American Business – RAI with Rana Foroohar (1/6) -

    Raghuram Rajan (Wiki, YouTube,

    Predicted the Global Financial Crisis
    NBER: Has Financial Development Made the World Riskier?, 2005, (pdf)
    He is NOT a proponent of MMT, but favors austerity.  That's to say he does not see the need for sovereign governments to directly create jobs.  In my opinion, his proposal to train displaced workers will only allow the more trained worked to displace a less trained worker, i.e. it will not create a new job.  It's also not clear if he made the prediction or if it was someone on his staff.

    Thomas Frank (Wiki, home page, )
    YouTube: Thomas Frank: What's the Matter with the Democrats? Mar 30, 2016 - Promoting book: Listen, Liberal: Or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People?
    YouTube: How The Democratic Party BETRAYED Workers & Its Base - THOMAS FRANK Interview by Jimmy Dore Part 1 (of 4)
    YouTube Thomas Frank "What's the Matter With Kansas? - promoting that book
    Thomas does not understand the importance of the Clinton surplus in MMT terms, but does get the damage done by Clinton. (See Clinton in bad laws above)

    Predicted the Global Financial Crisis

    None of these people mention MMT, but some of them are using ideas that are a fundamental part of MMT and are not part of historical schools of economics.

    From:  http://www.investorhome.com/predicted.htm
    No one saw this coming. Understanding financial crisis through accounting models - "his paper presents evidence that accounting (or flow-of-fund) macroeconomic models helped anticipate the credit crisis and economic recession. Equilibrium models ubiquitous in mainstream policy and research did not." see: Zombie Economics

    The Bezemer 12 are

    • Dean Baker
    • Wynne Godley
    • Fred Harrison (UK) (Wiki) -  believes in not taxing jobs and corporations (MMT idea based on Minsky)
    • Michael Hudson
    • Eric Janszen (Wiki) - (2006). America's Bubble Economy: Profit When It Pops
    • Steve Keen (Australia)
    • Jakob Madsen (Wiki, )& Jens Kjaer Sørensen (Denmark) - When doomsday economist was right "The macroeconomic reality is generally difficult to be explained within the dominant neoclassical equilibrium model."
      see: Zombie Economics 
    • Kurt Richebächer (Wiki) -
    • Nouriel Roubini (Wiki) - does not understand MMT and so have made what I (BC) feel are predictions that will fail
    • Peter Schiff (Wiki) - he does not understand MMT and has policies that are counter to MMT
    • Robert Shiller (Wiki) - preface to 3 editions of his book Irrational Exuberance offer predictions of bubble - not so much MMT

     Bezemer applied four selection criteria.

    1. Some account on how they arrived at their conclusions.
    2. Including an analytical account linking a real estate crisis to real-sector recessionary implications (eliminating John Talbott).
    3. Prediction in the public domain, and
    4. The prediction had to have some timing attached to it (eliminating Raghuram Rajan and Claudio Borio)
    It seems strange that Ann Pettifor is not on that list. Why?

    Other MMT References

    American Affairs Jan 1946 V VIII, No. 1 - Taxes for Revenue Are Obsolete (pdf), Beardsley Ruml, Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York - The experience of W.W.II showed that the U.S. could pay for the war without raising the needed revenue from taxes.
    "Taxation is one of the limitations placed by government on the power of business to do what it pleases.  There is nothing reprehensible about this procedure.  The business that is taxes is not a creature of flesh and blood , it is not a citizen."
    "The necessity for a government to tax in order to maintain both its independence and its solvency is true for state and local governments, but it is not true for a national government.  Two changes of the greatest consequence have occurred in the last twenty -five years (since 1921) which have substantially altered the position of the national state with respect to the financing of its current requirements.  The first of these changes is the gaining of vast new experience n the management of central banks.  The second change is the elimination, for domestic purposes, of the convertibility of the currency into gold."
    Purposes of taxation:
    1. instrument of fiscal policy, i.e. price stability (goal: stable purchasing power)
    2. public policy, i.e. progressive income and estate taxes (goal: wealth & income equality)
    3. public policy, i.e. subsidizing or penalizing industries or economic groups
    4. isolate and asses directly the costs of certain national benefits, such as highways ande social security
    Taxing corporations is a Bad Tax.
    Journal of Finance Aug 1946: Tax policies for Prosperity (pdf) by Beardsley Ruml - behind a pay wall
    "Briefly the idea behind out tax policy should be this:  that our taxes should be high enough to protect the stability of our currency, and no higher...Now it follows from this principle that our tax rates can and should be lowered to the point where the federal budget will be balanced at what we would consider a satisfactory level of high employment."

    Since countries differ in their export/import balance the above gets modified by MMT to be:
    (from the MMT primer by Wray) "Tax rates should be set so that the government's budgetary outcome (whether in deficit, balanced, or in surplus) is consistent with full employment.
    Reuters: Japan's government could run out of cash by October 2012 - can not happen according to MMT and did not happen.

    Levy Economics Institute - MM Papers - Working paper 778 Modern Money Theory 101: A Reply to Critics 2013 (free pdf)
    High Powered Money (Wiki) is mentioned in the paper and I didn't recognize the term and the Wiki page was less than helpful.  Warren Mosler has this to say:
    "That's just cash plus dollars held by member banks in the reserve accounts at the Fed.  It was called high powered money because it was convertible into gold before 1934.  Randy (Wray) still uses it because his professor's initials were HPM (Hyman P. Minsky)."

    Regarding the large upturn in HPM since 2007 (Wiki plot) L. Randall Wray says:
    In any case what happened was that the Fed got confused and thought that QE would stimulate something. Exactly what, we do not know.
    Fed also started paying interest on reserves--which makes them equivalent to bills. So think of the $4T of reserves as bills paying low interest.
    That was the kink in the curve you saw. You could just as well exchange the reserves for bills and then the kink goes away.
    Three UMKC Professors Among The Nine Who Predicted Eurozone Crisis -  and confirm that there was no profit recycling mechanism as Yanis says.

    New Economic Perspectives

    Center for Full Employment and Price Stability -

    Centre of Full Employment and Equity -

    email sent to Dan Kedmey 7/20/2016 about a TED ideas article related to Yanis and a Time magazine article about the possible US default and China.

    Hi Dan Kedmey::

    I saw your article http://ideas.ted.com/what-should-the-future-of-capitalism-look-like/
    And want to point out that Yanis describes what happened to the economy after 1971 as "The Global Minotaur".   He is a very charismatic speaker and so I read his book, then a book on Volcker including communicating with the author and can not find any plan by Volcker for American hegemony.  My research into The Global Minotaur is at:

    I then discovered Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) which offers a good explanation of what happened after 1971.  I believe that Yanis used Greek mythology because he didn't really understand what happened.

    I see you have written a Time article:
    That's about a possible default by the U.S.  According to MMT this can not happen because the U.S. is a sovereign country with a floating currency exchange rate so can never bounce a check.  See the books by Frank Newman for more on the  U.S. dollar and China.

    For me the fact that MMT predicted the problems with the Euro in exactly the way they have happened and also predicted the Global Financial Crisis (one of the key factors was the problem created by the Clinton budget surplus) makes me a believer in MMT.  Here's some research on MMT you may want to study:

    Please let me know you received this.

    PS Most thinking on the economy is based on how it worked up until 1971.  So there's about 4,000 years of thought than no longer is applicable.  This may explain why so many people keep thinking the old way.  If  you don't know how something works it pretty much impossible to predict it's behavior or make make "improvements" to it's operation.

    Have Fun,

    Brooke Clarke

    Effect of Interest Rates on Home Values

    2018 good article saying there are two factors that drive housing prices: How economists (should) think about the housing market -

    Rent = House price x (interest rate + depreciation rate)
    So, house prices depend on equivalent rent rates as well as mortgage interest and depreciation.

    [2017 - This paragraph added after I started reading the 2006 (pre Crisis) book The Coming First World Debt Crisis]

    A home buyer approaches the housing market and the first calculation is "What can I afford".  This is determined by what monthly payment they can make based on the type of loan and downpayment.
    Here is an example of the effect of the interest rate on affordability.

    Payments do not include title, morrgatge insurance, taxes or property insurance, maintance, just principle and interest.
    Rather than run the calculation for the loan amount it's being run assuming $1,000/month is available to buy a house, i.e. what can you afford.

    Loan Amount
    Total $
    Total $
    360,000 223717
    360,000 193208
    360,000 150539
    360,000 89451

    One way to view getting a lower rate loan is to allow you to buy a more expensive house. But when the mortgage is bought by investment banks in order to "financialize" it the low interest rate does not go to getting a "better" house but rather only goes to make the price of the house higher.  This can easily be seen by considering what a change of interest rate has on the price of a home you can afford.  For example a house that sold some years ago for $166,792 with a 6% loan, sells today for $209549 with a 4% loan (all other variables constant), so there's an increase in the price of the house of 26% soley because of the lower interest rate.

    This same effect applies to anything were borrowed money is involved, such as the stock market.  This was origionally named the Greenspan Put (Wiki), but was renamed the Bernanke Put in 2007 and today might be called the Yellen Put since there has been no change in keeping the interest rates very low to promote higher capital asset "values".  LOw interest rates support various "bubbles" (Wiki) (but do not cause them).

    In the above table note the ratio of Interest/Loan.  I see a problem here relating to the lack of money to pay off the loan.  Note when you borrow money the bank only loans you the principle amount.  For example if you borrow $166,792 from the bank they "print money" in that they just make bookkeeping entries, one in your checking account and one in their asset account for the same $166,792 amout.  But the bank expects you to pay back $360,000 over the life of the loan.  The bank is creating new money in this process.  They are NOT loaning you money that someone has deposited in their bank. 

    As of 2017 there are only two places the money used to pay the interest can come from.  Either someone else has to go bankrupt or the Federal government has to supply that money.  Note that the amount of interest is about the same as the loan amount for a 30 year fixed mortgate near 5% so is a considerable amount of money.

    If the economy has inflation then as the mortgate advances in years the money used to pay it back is inflated, making the true interest rate lower than the number shown on the loan documents.  But if there's deflation then the effective loan rate increases causing a deflationary spiral (Wiki).

    Gold Standard (Wiki)


    Wiki has three definitions for "Gold Standard": specie (money is only gold coins), bullion (government will sell gold bars at fixed price), exchange (paper money in one country can be exchanged with paper money in another country at fixed rate).

    Before and for some years after the Declaration of Independence and Constitution the US colonies (Wiki) used British Pounds (Wiki) as well as Spanish dollars (Wiki). 
    "By far the leading specie coin circulating in America was the Spanish silver dollar, defined as consisting of 387 grains of pure silver. The dollar was divided into "pieces of eight," or "bits," each consisting of one-eighth of a dollar. Spanish dollars came into the North American colonies through lucrative trade with the West Indies. The Spanish silver dollar had been the world's outstanding coin since the early 16th century, and was spread partially by dint of the vast silver output of the Spanish colonies in Latin America. More important, however, was that the Spanish dollar, from the 16th to the 19th century, was relatively the most stable and least debased coin in the Western world"
    Coinage Act of 1792 (Wiki) - An act establishing a mint, and regulating the Coins of the United States.  The coins contained either gold ($10, $5, $2.50) silver ($1, 50¢, 25¢, 10¢, 5¢) or copper (1¢, half¢) of a specified purity and weight (Wiki).  There were a number of following Coinage acts, but this one tied gold and silver to money.  Note there was no provision for paper money and the US silver dollar was to have a value the same as the Spanish silver dollar.
    Ratio of the price of Gold to Silver
    Wiki link

    Coinage Act of 1792 Gold : Silver 15:1
    Coinage Act of 1834 Gold ($20.67) : Silver 16:1
    Coinage Act of 1849
    adds Double Eagle gold coins
    Coinage Act of 1857
    Foreign coins no longer legal tender
    National Bank Act 1863
    Greenbacks 1862 to 1971: "This Note is Legal Tender for All Debts Public and Private Except Duties On Imports And Interest On The Public Debt; And Is Redeemable In Payment Of All Loans Made To The United States."
    Coinage Act of 1864
    In God We Trust
    Coinage Act of 1873
    ended bimetallism & standard Silver Dollar
    Was the beginning of the Silver Certificate (1878 to 1964)
    Federal Reserve Act of 1913
    beginning of the Federal Reserve Banking system and Federal Reserve Note 
    "this note is legal tender for all debts, public and private"
    Coinage Act of 1965
    ended silver in the dime and quarter
    $20.67 / 16 = $1.29 Oz of silver
    so silver quarters were worth 34.5 cents.

    Executive order 6102 (Wiki, Text)  (March 9,  1933) required everyone to turn in all gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates in excess of $100 per person (at $20.67 per ounce, the then going rate) to a Federal Reserve Bank on or before May 1, 1933.  This was done using registered mail where special locks were used on the mail bags, not to stop theft, but as tamper indicators.

    The Gold Reserve Act of 1934 (Wiki) Took the US off the specie  gold standard and fixed the price of gold at $35/oz.  "...outlawed most private possession of gold.  The act also changed the nominal price of gold from $20.67 (price paid to people turning in gold) per troy ounce to $35 (the dollar is pegged to gold, not floating). This price change incentivized foreign investors to export their gold to the United States, while simultaneously devaluing the U.S. dollar in an attempt to spark inflation. The increase in gold reserves due to the price change as well as the confiscation clause resulted in a large accumulation of gold in the Federal Reserve and U.S. Treasury. The increase in the money supply lowered real interest rates which increased investment in durable goods."  This removed the "gold standard" and left the value of gold at $35 per ounce which was maintained until the Nixon Shock of 1971.

    For about 200 years (1792 to 1971) U.S. currency was tied to gold and/or silver.  Before 1971 the folding money in my wallet said Silver Certificate (Wiki) on the front (see photo above).  I could take it to the mint in San Fransisco (or any other US Mint) and get either silver dollars or silver ingots in exchange.  Prior to 1971 the measures of the money supply like M0, M1, M2 &Etc (Wiki) were important because the amount of money was limited by the gold and/or silver reserves held by the US government.  If the government ran a large deficit while the dollar was pegged to gold/silver there might be a problem if everyone turned in their currency and asked for silver.  So, back then, the government needed to use taxes to raise money in order to fund government programs because they could not just print more money.  So governments at all levels (federal, state and local) used taxes to raise money to fund their programs.  Prior to 1971 this was the correct way to think about government funding of programs, but not after 1971.

    [side bar:  in 1946 Beardsley Ruml, Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York wrote a couple of articles pointing out that the US had paid for W.W.II without raising the money by taxation, see link above).]

    The Federal Reserve System (Wiki) was created by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 (Wiki) (Public Law 63-43, 63rd Congress, HR 7837) section 14(a). Open Market Operations: "To deal in gold coin and bullion at home or abroad, to make loans thereon, exchange Federal reserve notes for gold, gold coin, or gold certificates, and to contract for loans of gold coin or bullion, giving therefor, when necessary, acceptable security, including the hypothecation of United States bonds or other securities which Federal reserve banks are authorized to hold:  (b)..."  The current version of has the same paragraph 14a. BUT. . .  in 1971 gold was decoupled from our currency so the Fed no longer can do anything with gold (see Nixon Shock implemented policies below).

    Nixon Shock

    1971 (Wiki: Nixon Shock):  264 - Address to the Nation Outlining a New Economic Policy: "The Challenge of Peace." August 15, 1971 9 pm - Implemented:
    1. repeal excise tax on automobiles,
    2. speed up the personal income tax exemptions,
    3. a $4.7 billion cut in Federal spending,
    4. Tax cuts to stimulate employment must be matched by spending cuts to restrain inflation. To check the rise in the cost of Government, I have ordered a postponement of pay raises and a 5 percent cut in Government personnel,
    5. a 10 percent cut in foreign economic aid,
    6. Investment tax credit,
    7. a freeze on all prices and wages throughout the United States
    8. suspend temporarily the convertibility of the dollar into gold or other reserve assets (Doublespeak (Wiki):the word "temporarily" in this case means "forever")
    I remember this.  The big thing was the freeze on wages and prices.  The company were I worked (Aertech) liked the investment tax credit.  The other things like the "temporary" suspension of convertibility of the dollar for gold was, as Nixon said, "very technical--what does it mean for you? " and had little impact on anyone except for Bob B. who panned gold on his vacations and prior to 1971 was not allowed to smelt  (Wiki) the gold dust into solid gold.  Now he and everyone else could hold gold as a metal.

    I doubt that neither Nixon nor his financial advisers understood the impact of decoupling the dollar from gold/silver and allowing the currency to float.  For example:
    Item 3 & 4 he is cutting taxes (T) and cutting spending (G) so G and T both go down.  MMT tells us that to create jobs G-T needs to go up, so the tax cut was a good thing but the spending cut was wrong.  Note it would have been correct with a fixed price of gold because all levels of government needed to raise money for spending by collecting taxes.  Nixon used the pre 1971 rules for the period after 1971 because no one understood the implications of the change.

    Note that everything about this announcement seems designed to obfuscate its true meaning.  By making the decoupling of the dollar and gold the last of a bunch of items and using the word "temporarily" he did about everything possible to not draw attention to this change that would have implications for the world and also to discourage economists from figuring out the implications.   What's the point of doing a lot of theoretical work when the suspension is "temporary"?

    The Bretton Woods System (Wiki) that tied the currency exchange rates of 40 countries to the U.S. dollar which was in turn fixed to gold at $35 per ounce.  When Nixon closed the Fed's gold window it impacted all of those 40 countries and especially the oil producing countries represented by OPEC (Wiki).  Since Nixon shock amounted to a devaluation of the dollar and they priced oil using $ per barrel.  This dollar devaluation and the
    Yom Kippur War (Wiki) resulted in the 1973 Oil Crisis (Wiki).

    The Oil Crisis resulted in the OPEC countries holding a lot of dollars which needed to be invested.  Here is a plot of the US government bond interest rates from 1950 to 2017:

    source: tradingeconomics.com
    Note the with the U.S. paying high rates of interest the OPEC
    countries sent the dollars back to investment banks in the U.S..  But this places a burden on the investment banks because they needed to make money on the deposits.  This started the idea of making loans to third world countries.  As part of the Bretton Woods System (Wiki) trade was encouraged and the only capital flows allowed were those to clear trade balances.  Global investment capital flows were not allowed.  So in order for the investment banks to make these loans the laws regarding global capital flows needs to be liberalized.  The people at Bretton Woods realized that there is a conflict between global trade and global capital flows and wanted global trade as it would improve everyone's life while global capital flows would hurt people.  When the third world countries went into competition with each other they ended up not being able to pay off those high interest rate loans.  The IMF (Wiki) which was founded as part of the Bretton Woods System and under the fixed exchange rates tied to the U.S. dollar which was in turn tied to gold imposed austerity on these delinquent countries, but that policy no longer was applicable because the rules had changed in 1971.  Austerity means cutting spending which in turn hurts economic output decreasing the money available to pay off their loan.

    Here is a plot of the U.S. Import-Export trade balance aka Current Account (Wiki) for the same 1950 - 2017 year range:

    source: tradingeconomics.com

    Note that the Import-Export balance was zero until 1971.  This is because when the
    Bretton Woods System was in effect there was a built-in mechanism coupling money and trade balance.  For example if a country was a net importer, like the U.S. prior to 1971, then we would need to export gold to pay for those products.  That causes the prices of imports to rise slowing down the imports.  This is the capital "Recycling" that Yanis is talking about.  The problem was that by 1971 the U.S. owed France literally a boat load of gold and Nixon was not about to give it to them.
    From the late 1800s on schools have been teaching economics based on a gold/silver backed dollar.  Even though that changed in 1971 they continue to teach the outdated ideas.  So even today the school economics curriculum pretty much everywhere is still teaching the same outdated ideas.   Also micro economics is based solely on industrial age manufacturing, i.e. before computers and automation, and so has fundamental problems.  Macro economics is also based on false ideas. see books above.

    Global Capital Flows

    2017 - I've been reading about how no bankers were invited to the Bretton Woods Conference (Wiki) because of the damage they did in the Great Depression (Wiki).  One of the key provisions was to limit capital flows between countries, i.e. to allow for the prevention of Globalization. 
    States and the Reemergence of Global Finance: From Bretton Woods to the 1990s (Cornell Studies in Political Economy) Hardcover – June, 1994, Eric Helleiner (Wiki) -
    Deutsche Bank, Markets Research: Dark matter: the hidden capital flows the drive G10 exchange rates -

    Global Finance

    One of the books cited by Ann Pettifor, and others who predicted the Global Financial Crisis of 2008,  a number of times is  "States and the Reemergence of Global Finance: From Bretton Woods to the 1990s" by Eric Helleiner, 1994 - Note this was written after 1971 and before the 2007/2008 crisis, but the author did not know about the ideas of MMT, but nevertheless talks a lot about how the Bretton Woods agreement spent a lot of time looking at the need for controls on global finance while at the same time liberalizing international trade.  They recognized then that global finance leads to destabilizing the global economy and restricting economic options and is not compatible with global trading which they promoted.  Helleiner gives a number of reasons why global finance was allowed while global trade is still regulated and it boils down to controlling global finance requires global cooperation and so can be defeated by a single country (like the policies of the U.S.).  Since global finance does not directly effect jobs, like global trade does, there is not much political will to restrict it.  Multinational corporations, oligarchs (Wiki) and people involved in money laundering (Wiki) are in favor of no global financial regulations so that they can move money to avoid rules they do not like.  Note that money laundering is a federal crime inside the U.S. In my opinion it is commonly practiced by IBFs (Wiki) even though they are not supposed to.  This recently (March 2017) was in the news in relation to Russian oligarchs making "wash transactions" in two different markets where they purchased using Russian money and sold in markets where the proceeds were in US$, thus moving their money out of Russia, i.e. a global financial transaction.

    The Global Minotaur (This is NOT the real problem instead it looks like not understanding MMT: see MMT above, i.e. the Minotaur is a myth.)

    But the idea that there's no longer democracy in the EU is a correct assessment.  This is because economic policy decisions are made in Germany for all of the EU and the people in the EU have no say in those decisions.

    TED talk: Yanis Varoufakis capitalism will eat democracy unless we speak up - how the recycling systems used since W.W.II that used profits to reduce debts has now failed and currently we are accumulating both debt and cash with no mechanism for them to get together.


    Feb 2016 - If, as Yanis Varoufakis (Wiki) says, Greece is the canary in the coal mine (Wiki) then we need to really understand what's going on.  He says there are two indications of the problem.
    1. A growing mountain of debt caused by borrowing.
    2. A growing mountain of cash caused by it not being used productively to reduce the mountain of debt.

    Is Finance Fit To Purpose? 14 April 2016 - A quick overview of Yanis idea.

    Profit Recycling by Gold Standard
    If a country maintained it's money supply based on it's gold reserves then the exchange rate between countries would change if either of them changed it's money supply.  Suppose that, like after W.W. II the U.S. starts to buy more from Japan than it exports to Japan (a negative trade balance).  The U.S. ships gold to Japan in exchange for cameras, cars, TVs &Etc.  Then the exchange rate will change making those things more expensive and making U.S. goods look cheaper to the Japanese.  This happened and Japan went on a buying spree in the U.S. acquiring a lot of real estate among other things.  This also happened with Europe and Germany in particular.  The U.S. bought a lot of Volkswagen and Merecedes Benz cars, Hasselblad cameras, machine tools, &Etc.  By 1971 Europe was expecting the U.S. to ship billions of dollars worth of gold to them and Nixon turned off the gold standard.

    Marshal Plan
    During (and for some time after) W.W.II the U.S. accumulated a lot of gold as a result of a trade surplus.  At the Bretton Woods Conference (Wiki) in April 1944 the Marshal Plan (Wiki) was a way that the U.S. recycled it's trade surplus to strengthen Japan and Germany (the offer made to the U.S.S.R. was rejected).  This essentially sent U.S. dollars to Germany and Japan and allowed them to buy U.S. products.  So from the end of W.W.II until 1971 when the U.S. left the gold standard (Wiki: Gold Standard, Nixon Shock) the U.S. sent it's excess trade balance to other countries.  This allowed them to buy U.S. products.  PS The CIA actions in South American politics (1944 to 1971) is related to the U.S. Global Plan for Japan in protecting it's raw material suppliers.

    Paul Volcker (Wiki) & American hegemony i.e. the Global Minotaur
    When the Gold Standard ended so did the Bretton Woods System (Wiki) since the gold standard was part of it's construction and the U.S. was no longer running a trade surplus (we were buying a lot of products from Germany and Japan), but those countries (and most other countries) sent their money to Wall Street (the U.S. dollar was the strongest currency in the world).  So between 1971 and 2008 what Yanis Varoufakis calls the Global Minotaur served the same purpose as the Marshal Plan except instead of recycling a U.S. trade surplus it recycled the trade surplus of other countries.  In an attempt to reign in Wall Street congress passed Dodd-Frank (see good laws above) which included the Volcker Rule, but as of 2016 Wall Street is fighting it tooth and nail and it's not yet been implemented.
    YouTube - Ron Paul Questions Paul Volcker During Joint Economic Committee 02 26 200 - Since 1971 (the end of Bretton Woods the stability of fiat currency (Wiki) needs to be better
    On order:
    Volcker: The Triumph of Persistence Hardcover – 2012 by William L. Silber 

    Noam Chomsky portrays hegemony (Wiki) as a bad thing, but that was not always the U.S. goal.  Recently the U.S. has lost sight of the good it could do.
    YouTube - Is the Human Species Doomed? Noam Chomsky on Hegemony or Survival  2004 talk promoting his book

    But as the post 1929 financial crash laws were repealed between 1965 and 2007 (see: Bad Laws) the banks were allowed to gamble with depositors money.  For example the wide use of Collateralized debt obligations (Wiki: CDO) in association with liar home mortgage loans (Wiki) along with false AAA credit ratings (Wiki) resulted in the financial crash of 2008 (Wiki). This killed the Global Minotaur and has allowed a lot of debit to accumulate in some places and a lot of cash to accumulate in other places instead of allowing the cash to be invested in places where there's debt to allow both accumulations to get reduced.  The 4  handmaidens of the Global Minotaur - Chapter 5 (1.Wall Street, 2. Walmart, 3. the ideology and politics of 'trickle-down' and 4. toxic economic theory)  These are discussed in Chapter 5 The Beast's handmaidens. Note the 2008 crash has killed the Global Minotaur but the handmaidens are still around and out of control, sort of like the Sorcerer's Apprentice (Wiki)

    Note: Walmart pays more than the minimum wage, but virtually all of it's employees are below the poverty line which means they qualify for food stamps and other government aid.  So the government is subsidizing Walmart, i.e. privatize the profits and socialize the losses.  Walmart is a socialist business.  I'm not saying it's a bad idea, rather I'm saying it's not fair to allow corporations to work in a socialized economy yet not allow people to do it.

    A related idea is the "part time worker" (Wiki) and/or "independent contractor" (Wiki) - these are both ways that employers get around the requirement to provide benefits to their employees that they otherwise would be required by labor laws to provide.

    What's needed is a way to recycle excess debt or cash so neither accumulates.

    The Global Minotaur: America, Europe and the Future of the Global Economy by Yanis Varoufakis 2015 (with new Chapter 9 A world without the Minotaur) - highly recommended (free 2011 edition.pdf)
    http://www.ted.com/talks/yanis_varoufakis_capitalism_will_eat_democracy_unless_we_speak_up (YouTube)
    DiEM25.org - DiEM25 is in the air – a preliminary Q&A (31 Jan 2016) - it would be a mistake if the U.S. did not join this discussion.
     Vicious Disequilibrium by Yanis Varoufakis 2014 - easy to understand
    A world without the Global Minotaur: Why is the world economy failing to recover? by Yanis Varoufakis 2012
    The Global Minotaur: An Interview with Yanis Varoufakis 2012 - Q&A
    Modern Political Economics: Making Sense of the Post-2008 World 2011 - expensive textbook, but a lot is free on Amazon in Look Inside!

    In the first chapter there's reference to a Monthly Review Volume 55, Number 3 (July-August 2003) paper: The Global Minotaur by Joseph Halevi & Yanis Varoufakis (it's behind a pay wall but here's a free version pdf)
    Here's a 2015 YouTube talk by Joseph Halevi:
    Joseph Halevi - Farewell Lecture - the '29 crash was because of oligopoly (Wiki) not monopoly (Wiki). Also there are two distinct pricing structures one for raw goods (cost of extraction) and one for industrial goods (labor?).

    Modern Political Economics: Making Sense of the Post-2008 World 2011 by Yanis Varoufakis, Joseph Halevi, Nicholas J. Theocarakis - pricey so haven't read the book, but have read the free Amazon part pg 338 Kissinger & Volcker's plan mentioned. 
    Volcker - Quarterly Review of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (The political Economy of the Dollar (FRBNY.pdf Quarterly Review winter 1-12) and the Fred Hirsch (Wiki) Lecture at Warwick University, Coventry November 1978:
    "It is tempting to look at the market as an impartial arbiter ... but balancing the requirements of a stable international system against the desirability of retaining freedom of action for national policy, a number of countries, including the US opted for the latter...'
    and quoting Fred Hirsh:
    "[A] controlled disintegration in the world economy is a legitimate objective for the 1980s."

    22 May 2013 - Jared Huffman has his first telephone Town Hall meeting.  I was No. 6 to ask a question "What was he doing to bring back Glass-Steagall?" but after over a dozen answers he didn't get to my question.  At the beginning he said he would answer everyone's questions off line if not on line, but as of 13 Oct 2014 he has not answered this one.  See the TED talk above Capitalism will eat democracy for an explanation of how politicians no longer can control the financial markets.

    He also responded to a direct question where I was in disagreement with the idea of taxing internet transactions.  It turns he is a sponsor of "H.R. 684, the Marketplace Fairness Act".
    So here's the federal government making a law about sales tax that will very substantially increase record keeping and customer disclosure requirements.  The idea that people will buy on line instead of locally to save paying the sales tax ignores the reality that the shipping costs are typically much higher than the sales tax.  The definition of a "small business" that's exempt from the proposed law is sales below one million dollars, but that's far different than the definition of a small business in other branches of government where it's 20 or 30 million dollars in annual sales.

    5 May 2016 - Huffman has changed his position as a super delegate from supporting Hillary to supporting whoever gets the most votes nationwide.  He will not vote based on how the district 2 vote goes.  So, in my opinion, he's still an establishment politician, not part of Bernie's camp.

    The book Keynes Hayek: The Clash That Defined Modern Economics by Nicholas Wapshott (Wiki) 2011 - Both Keynes and Hayek started by looking into the causes of the Great Depression (Wiki) from, two very different points of view.  Hayek (Wiki) based his Microeconomic (Wiki) ideas which looks at the actions of individuals whereas Keynes took a top down Macroeconomic (Wiki) view.  That had never been done before.  In my opinion Microeconomics is a failed idea because humans (and other primates) do not behave rationally (Wiki) when making decisions involving loss (Wiki). During depressions everyone throws out Hayek and adopts the Keynes idea that government should borrow and stimulate the economy.  From the end of W.W.II to the election of Ronald Reagan (Wiki) Keynesian economics (Wiki) were popular.  Reagan had a foot in both camps, he cut taxes in line with Hayek and he radically increased spending by borrowing in line with Keynes.  But beginning in the 1980 some the ideas of Hayek became popular.  From pg 219:
    "Hayek's utopianism often spilled over into religiosity.  As his disciple Ralph Harris described it, "once . . . you understand there is no other way to preserve the substance of individual freedom except through dispersed property ownership, . . .  you can say it's almost like a religious belief . . . I have said - and it's offended some of my other Christian friends; they have said this is awful, sacrilege- . . .  that the market is almost god-ordained"21 In Hayek's vision, government would be left to manage only those elements of society that could be run by no one else, such as defense.  Among the services Hayek believed should be privatized were "all those from education to transport and communications, including post, telegraph, telephone and broadcasting services, all the so-called 'public utilities,' the various 'social' insurances and, above all, the issue of money."22 Tellingly, and perhaps surprisingly for those who subscribe to Hayek's general aims today, he advocated mandatory universal health care and unemployment insurance, enforced, if not directly provided, by the state, and he believed there should be free movement of labor across national borders."

    21. Interview of Ralph Harris (Wiki), July 17, 2000 Commanding Heights, PBS
    22. F.A. Hayek, Law, Legislation and Liberty, VOl 3: The Political Order of a Free People, Univ of Chicago Press 1979, pg. 147
    This included steps to privatize the U.S. Postal Service, deregulation of the banking system &Etc.

    The Open Society and Its Enemies by Karl Popper 2013 (First published in 1945 as 2 volumes, this book combines them and adds some new information) - on order

    Dark Ages America: The Final Phase of Empire by Berman, Morris (Wiki: links) 2006 - on order

    The Twilight of American Culture by Berman, Morris 2001 - on order

    Social Change and Scientific Organization: The Royal Institution, 1799-1844, by Berman, Morris 1978 - on order

    American Fascists: The Christian Right and the War on America by Chris Hedges 2007 (Wiki: Links, Amazon) - on order because of Donald Trump (Wiki)

    Ancient Economic History

    Mercantilism (Wiki) was the economic system from the 1500s to 1800s replaced by Adam Smith's Capitalism.  "Most of the European economists who wrote between 1500 and 1750 are today generally considered mercantilists."  "In modern economic theory, trade is not a zero-sum game of cutthroat competition because both sides can benefit."

    The Wealth of Nations (Wiki) laid out what's called classical economics including the concept of the Invisible Hand (Wiki). I think the Invisible Hand sort of worked in Adam Smith's time (i.e. before the Industrial Revolution (Wiki) and large corporations), if there was a retail mom and pop store that was doing something underhanded you could easily open a shop that was fair and be successful, but that no longer is the case with large corporations.

    There was a change in focus from the King's wealth to the wealth of the population. 
    PS. I think neoclassical economics (Wiki) is a waste of time because humans do not make good decisions under negative conditions i.e. they do NOT act as rational persons.  There are a number of TED Talks on the topic of how humans and chimps make the wrong choice when loss is involved.

    Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Wealth Gap -

    Monetary Theory

    In all these pre 1971 monetary theories the money always was tied to gold in one way or another.

    This is a subset of economic theory and addresses how the amount of money will be determined.  There are two major historical schools of thought:

    British Banking School (Wiki, Fiat Money)

    Wanted to issue paper money with no reserve requirement on the amount of gold deposits.

    British Currency School (Wiki, Gold Certificate, Silver Certificate, Gold Standard)

    Supported the Bank Charter Act of 1844 (Wiki) which said that only the central bank could issue new paper bank notes and then only if they were backed 100% by gold.

    Homo economicus (Wiki)

    The idea that people are rational in their decisions relating to money.  It's not true on a number of levels.
    The book "How we Decide" by Jonah Lehrer goes into some depth about how our mind works and it's not how most people think it works.
    When humans make a choice where gain is involved they act rationally, but when making a choice where loss is involved they make very poor choices, this is also true for the grate apes.
    This means that the basis of most microeconomic theory (Wiki) is flawed.

    Money based on debt (Wiki)

    When a bank makes a loan they just make two entries in their books. One puts the principal amount into your checking account (as a bank liability) and the other puts the principal amount into their collection of assets.

    You borrow $100,000 for 30 years at 6%.  The amount of money created is $100,000.  Your checking account entry is a liability for the bank and your loan is an asset for the bank.
    But, you need to pay back close to $216,000.
    This is a big problem because the money to pay back the interest was NOT created.  There is no provision to create money for the interest.  Where is it going to come from?
    Either the economy keeps on growing putting new money in the system, some of which is used to pay off old loans or there are bankruptcies that cancel loans.
    A possible way around this is to eliminate interest from the system.
    Islamic banking and finance (Wiki) does not allow interest and while the religious components don't make sense, the basic idea seems valid.
    One way of doing this would be to make banks a utility operated by government paid employees where no interest is charged and the bank partners with the borrower.

    Standard & Poor's: Repeat After Me: Banks Cannot And Do Not "Lend Out" Reserves (pdf) Aug 2013 - since banks have never been constrained in making loans based on reserves (the reserve requirement is met AFTER the loan is made) there is no "money multiplier" (Wiki) effect caused by the excess reserves generated by QE.

    2016 Update - See MMT above for how the government puts money into the economy in addition to the bank's creation of money out of thin air.

    IMF (Wiki: IMF)

    The International Monetary Fund was created as part of the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 (Wiki). This was a time before MMT (see MMT above) when there were fixed exchange rates and a gold standard.  That changed in 1971 with the end of the gold standard, but the magnitude of the impact (the start of MMT) just started to be understood by a very few people in 1992.  The result is that the IMF is basing it's demands on no longer valid theories.

    IMF groupthink and sociopaths by Bill Mitchell (See above) - The IMF report IMF Performance in the Run-Up to the Financial and Economic Crisis: IMF Surveillance in 2004-07 mentioned in the article can be found at (IEO part of the IMF).
    re: Global Financial Crisis - "As the private debt was building up and the shonky (and criminal) bankers were increasingly defying responsible and ethical business practice, the IMF was part of the cheer squad – urging, no, bullying governments to deregulate further and undermine the working conditions further and to reduce the scope and quality of public services."

    It's time to disband the IMF and probably the World Bank.

    Capitalism- It's OK if Regulated but can be so much more -> Capitalism 2.0

    The year 1776 is notable for (1) the Declaration of Independence and (2) the publication of the Wealth of Nations (Wiki) by Adam Smith, the basis of Capitalism.  Prior to this there was Feudalism (Wiki).  At the time products were made by craftsmen one at a time, and there was no manufacturing, electricity, plumbing, etc.  A high technology business was making cast iron cookware.  So the philosophy of doing what’s in your own self interest (greed) and an invisible hand (Wiki) will guide you for the good of society might have worked then.  But greed is no longer working and we need to move on to a better idea.

    Note: in the book Why America Failed: The Roots of Imperial Decline (2012) Morris Berman makes the case that the United States was founded on the idea of the swindle.  He bases this on the group of people who founded the U.S. being driven by the idea of getting away with something.  Note the founding fathers were all: white men who owned slaves.

    The Constitution was ratified over a dozen years after the Declaration of Independence was signed and so our economic system of greed and the "invisible hand" was built into it not only in terms of the economic system but things like the legal system.

    Joseph Stiglitz: Smith's "Invisible Hand" a Myth? (00:02:35)

    90 years later in 1867 Carl Marx published Das Kapital (Wiki) and said Capitalism could not work and socialism was the answer.  The U.S.S.R. tried socialism and it failed in 1989.

    John F. Nash won the 1994 Nobel Prize in economics for his theory of Governing Dynamics.  In the movie A Beautiful Mind the bar scene is an example of his two part idea that starts with Adam Smith’s Capitalism and adds a second idea:  “doing what is in the best interest of the group”.
    http://www.end2partygovernment.com/2012Issues.html#ASvJN <- the 3 minute bar scene
    We need to move to Capitalism version 2.0.

    Wiki: List of countries by income equality - The U.S. is in the group of third world countries.

    Fractional Reserve Banking (Wiki, Criticism)

    Has built in the idea of a growing economy and that's not sustainable.  This needs to be changed.
    YouTube - Money As Debt-Full Length Documentary - the only item they may have wrong is the idea that spending on infrastructure promotes the economy.  I think R&D on sustainable projects would be a much better way for the government to spend money.
    ContagionEx by by Mark Foire(00:01:32)

    The Laffer Curve & Voodoo Economics

    2017 - This is an idea from the primary where Ronald Reagan was running against Bush Sr.  It was an answer to the wrong question.
    The question was what marginal tax rate will maximize the amount of income taxes collected?
    The reason it's wrong is that the rules changed in 1971, see Gold Standard.

    The Laffer Curve (Wiki) says that if the tax rate is either zero or 100% the amount of tax revenue will be small and somewhere in between more will be collected.  At that time the marginal tax rate was 80% and so it seemed reasonable that lowering that rate would cause more money to be collected.  But MMT teaches us that the federal government does NOT fund spending from taxes, so there's no reason to maximize tax collection.  In fact taxes pull money out of circulation, something you only want to do if the economy is too hot.

    David Stockman (Wiki: part of the Reagan OMB) coined the term "trickle down" to promote what's called supply side economics (Wiki) which the book Zoombie Economics says is a false concept.  A good analogy is that a business with few people coming through the door is not going to expand if the loan rate goes lower, it takes more customers to cause the expansion, i.e. demand-side economics (Wiki).

    Trofire: Inventor Of Trickle Down Economics Says Trump’s Tax Plan Is “Dead on Arrival” - "...David Stockman finally came out and he said, “I was wrong. I was wrong about trickle down economics. It is a theory that will never, ever, ever possibly, under any circumstances, work in practice.”

    Nick Hanauer - 2012 TED Talk (pulled by TED) March Long Beach
    Are the rich America's job creators?
    at The Last Word, at YouTube1, Who are the job creators? by Nick Hanauer (Wiki, TED controversy)
    A newer 2014 version: http://www.ted.com/talks/nick_hanauer_beware_fellow_plutocrats_the_pitchforks_are_coming - March 2016 he's got it correct.
    "Saving American Capitalism" with Nick Hanauer -

    When Reagan cut the marginal tax rate G.W. Bush used terms like "voodoo economics".  The reason was that what Reagan said was that by cutting the marginal tax rate the government would take in more money.  This is a counter intuitive idea, you would think that raising the marginal tax rate would increase income and the cutting it would lower government income.  But that simple thinking does not take into account what's called elasticity of tax rates or the Laffer Curve (Wiki).

    Prior to the Reagan tax cuts the marginal tax rate was 70% (IRS: 1980 Marginal Tax Rates).  What this means is that the IRS takes 70 cents of the next dollar of income made.  This caused stupid behavior like buying tax losses (Wiki: Tax Shelter) rather than trying to actually make more money.  It caused those paying the tax to do stupid things.  For more on how incentives effect behavior see the books with Freakonomics (Wiki) in the title.

    The Laffer curve says that if the effective tax rate is zero then the government will collect a very small amount of money by means of charitable contributions.  If the effective tax rate is 100 percent then the government will collect a very small amount of money from those who volunteer to work for free.  Somewhere between 0 and 100 percent there's an optimal tax rate that will bring in the most money.  If the current effective tax rate is higher than the optimum rate then lowering the tax rate will result in bringing in more money.  And that's where we were in 1980.  So when the marginal rate was lowered there was a huge influx of money. The tax cut part of what Reagan did worked well.  The thing he did wrong was the massive increase in war spending.  Instead of a peace dividend (Wiki) we got massive military expansion at a time when the U.S.S.R. had disintegrated. (Wiki: Peace Through Strength).  Some critics of tax cuts cite the increased national debt when Reagan left office as proof of it's failure, but that ignores the military spending.

    Today (2012) we are at the other end of the Laffer curve, i.e.the marginal tax rate is about 15% (Huffington Post: Marginal Tax Rate Chart).  So raising the marginal rate will bring in a lot more money into the government.

    Note that the Laffer Curve is not Trickle-down economics (Wiki). This is a very false idea.
    Modern Monetary Theory (see MMT) says that the purpose of taxes are to punish things we want to discourage, so studying the effect of marginal tax rates on tax income is only of secondary interest.  Much better to do a zero base study of the overall tax system.

    Adam Smith vs. John Nash -> Capitalism 2.0

    Adam Smith (Wiki) is commonly credited with formulating the idea of Capitalism or free markets.  He published The Wealth of Nations (Wiki) in 1776 this is at the start of mass production and before the problems caused by large corporations were known. Smith thought that when everyone works for their own best interest an "invisible hand" guides them to also do what's best for society.  There was no electric or phone service and plumbing was yet to come to homes.  All businesses were family run.   Free market "hands off" capitalism failed in the early 1900s with the advent of big business and big banking.  This led to government regulation of business and banking.

    After W.W. I Russia was in a very bad way economically, and medically (Wiki) which allowed Lenin to stage the October Revolution (Wiki) and install the Communist party in Russia which used the ideas of Karl Marx for their economic system.  This economic system did not work and the U.S.S.R. fell apart in the late 1980s.

    Capitalism can work when applied to a competitive market, for example things sold in grocery and hardware stores.  But it's not so good when applied to monopolistic cases like utilities.

    John Nash (Wiki) won the Nobel prize for his idea that there are two factors that determine the best outcome (1) what's best for the individual and (2) what's best for the group he is in.     This has implications for both national and world wide economic theory.

    See the bar scene from A Beautiful Mind (a bio on Nash) for a practical explanation of his idea.

    Bar Scene from A Beautiful Mind: Governing Dynamics by John F. Nash  "Adam Smith was Wrong" (00:03:16)

    This means that the Republican Party ideas about economics are based on a false idea "free market capitalism" and a false idea "voodoo economics" about tax cuts.  It turns out that the Democrats were the root cause of the 2008 financial crisis because of the Clinton budget surplus.  See Key Years for the Goldilocks papers predicting the crisis.

    Using Nash's idea we will get the best outcome if we do what's best for the Earth and what's best for us individually.  It may be a good idea to call this Nashism rather than keep using the word Capitalism.  This has a profound impact on economic thinking.

    Brooke on Capitalism 2.0

    Alexis de Tocqueville
      (Wiki: Democracy in America) -  “self-interest properly understood.” looking out for the other guy isn’t just good for the soul—it’s good for business.

    "Tocqueville warned that "modern democracy may be adept at inventing new forms of tyranny, because radical equality could lead to the materialism of an expanding bourgeoisie and to the selfishness of individualism. In such conditions "we lose interest in the future of our descendents...and meekly allow ourselves to be led in ignorance by a despotic force all the more powerful because it does not resemble one." Tocqueville worried that if despotism (Wiki) were to take root in a modern democracy, it would be a much more dangerous version than the oppression under the Roman emperors or tyrants of the past who could only exert a pernicious influence on a small group of people at a time. In contrast, a despotism under a democracy could see "a multitude of men," uniformly alike, equal, "constantly circling for petty pleasures," unaware of fellow citizens, and subject to the will of a powerful state which exerted an "immense protective power". Tocqueville compared a potentially despotic democratic government to a protective parent who wants to keep its citizens (children) as "perpetual children," and which doesn't break men's wills but rather guides it, and presides over people in the same way as a shepherd looking after a "flock of timid animals."

    Privatization (Wiki)
    It turns out that the Bush43 administration has put a poison pill into the Postal Accountability Act of 2006 (Wiki) (truth-out). This was part of a larger move to privatize everything. 
    In Eat the Rich by O'Rourke (Wiki, Amazon) the chapter on Russia during the cold war has information on how poorly the factories worked.  The description fits most cases in the U.S. where a government monopoly is privtized.  What happens in both cases is that the business operates strictly to the letter of their contract and they find loopholes that allow them to optimize some other parameter (minimizing material requirements for the USSR and maximizing profits for the U.S.).


    A key idea from MMT is that unemployment is caused by taxes.  There is no unemployment in societies where there are no taxes. In 2015 Finland was the happiest country and most of the top 10 happy countries employ a social democratic (Wiki) system of government (but they haven't yet figured out MMT).

    While US manufacturing output has continued to grow it did this by productivity improvement rather than by adding jobs.  This is a worldwide problem.

    MIT - Manufacturing Jobs Aren’t Coming Back Mark Muro Nov 18, 2016 - references the Oxford paper
    FiveThirty Eight - What Would Happen If We Just Gave People Money?  Apr 25, 2016  - references the Oxford paper
    Oxford: The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerization? Frey & Osborne 2013 - answer:  47% of the 702 US jobs studied.
    UNCTAD: Robots and Industrialization in Developing Countries, Oct 2016 - "According to some estimates, for developing countries as a group, the “share of occupations that could experience significant automation is actually higher in developing countries than in more advanced ones, where many of these jobs have already disappeared”, and this concerns about two thirds of all jobs."

    US Population Data
    Between 1980 and 2016 the population of the U.S. has grown from 227 million to 324 million (World Meters), a 42% increase. 
    Note that the population includes everybody from newborns to retired people.

    BLS Data
    Start at this BLS web page: http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/CES0000000001
    Then set the starting year to 1980 and press "GO".
    The number of employees goes from 90 million to 140 million.  So the percent of the population goes from 90/227 = 40% to 140/324 = 43%.  So things are getting better. 
    But the number of people out of work is also growing in terms of absolute numbers: 1980 unemployed (227 - 90) 137 to 2016 (324 - 140) 184 million.
    The BLS data titled "Charting the labor market: Data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), Sep 2, 2016" is misleading.  For example "Chart 1. Civilian labor force, Seasonally adjusted, 1990-2016" on page 4 and "Civilian employment, Seasonally adjusted, 1990-2016" on page 6 are very different.  Chart 1 shows the people the BLS considers the "labor force" those who are either working or looking for work and so understates the unemployment.  (does not account for those who have given up looking for a job).

    Chart 4. Employment-Population ratio, Seasonally adjusted 1990-2016, page 7 shows that between 58 and 65% of the population work, i.e. a little over half the population is working.  This is an indication that social benefits like health care should not be tied to working since over a hundred million people do not work.

    I think that manufacturing jobs are declining in the U.S. because of trade deals that permanently send those jobs overseas.  These jobs typically included benefits.  But most service sector jobs today are part time or "independent contractor" (Wiki) and have no benefits.  Also many main St. jobs are part time rather than full time, which is done mainly to avoid paying benefits, the key one being medical coverage.  So the percentage of available work force who have jobs with benefits is much less than the BLS data indicates.

    The US government could start a "jobs for all" program offering an entry level job to anyone who wants one based on MMT.  This would be in parallel with the existing safety net programs now in place.  People in this program would find it much easier to get a better job in the private sector since they would have a current track record of being a good worker.  In all probability most if not all of the current safety net programs would be reduced since these would be full time jobs.  Note the pay rate needs to be below Walmart or McDonald's so that it does not compete with the private sector.

    The Philips curve (Wiki) has been shown to be wrong, so full employment does not automatically lead to inflation.  The curve may of had some value pre 1971.  So, under MMT, it's probable that a zero rate of unemployment is not inflationary.  One MMT adage is that the key indicator for limiting government spending is the length of the unemployment line.  When it is at zero length further spending will cause inflation.  This is because at that point the government is in competition with the private sector.

    It appears that an Employer of Last Resort (Wiki)(CFEPS) or jobs guarantee (Wiki) can be done without an impact on inflation.  The idea of a  Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment (Wiki :NAIRU) is false.  According to MMT, government policy now sets the unemployment rate as a result of trying to control inflation.  Unemployment can be near zero if that's what the government wants without unacceptable inflation.  Also note that although the Federal Reserve Act says that Fed should control "price stability" (ie. inflation) and jobs, according to MMT it can do neither.

    As a general rule, mild inflation seems to be desirable.  "
    Economists generally believe that deflation (Wiki) is a problem in a modern economy because it increases the real value of debt, and may aggravate recessions and lead to a deflationary spiral".  Note:  all the Wiki deflation examples are post 1971, so this idea may be in line with MMT?

    Note that the productivity of the job is not part of it's MMT economic value.  For a silly example if  you hire someone to dig a hole then fill it there's a tremendous benefit to the economy.  That's because the worker will spend pretty much all the money he earns and so will help create other jobs where he spends.  But the jobs can be much better for society such as when the job includes training for needed jobs to maintain infrastructure and to build new infrastructure such as a nation wide fiber optic network in a similar manner to the interstate highway system.  Infrastructure maintenance is an on going requirement and is not being done at any level of government.  So a key target for the jobs program would be to maintain it not only at the federal level, but also at the state and local levels.

    The jobs went overseas because of trade agreements we made that allowed corporations to do that. But the benefit of these deals is positive for both sides.  It's just that on the negative side jobs are permanently lost.

    Note: caution is needed when looking at exports and imports after NAFTA because we then started exporting a lot of sub assemblies to Mexico and Canada that came back to us a final products.


    From what I've read the TPP (Wiki) is not in the best interests of U.S. people, but is going to be good for business profits. I expect, if passed, it would also result in taking away many more jobs.  Part of the population will be able to buy more imported goods at low prices, but at the same time there will be jobs permanently lost increasing the unemployment.

    I can think of different types of programs:

    Mark Blyth says that in the not too distant future 10% of the world's population can manufacture all the products for the other 90%.  This scale of change has already happened in agriculture and it's in the process of happening for manufacturing, white collar and some blue collar jobs. 
    This means a new type of economic system will be needed.  Maybe something like AmeriCorps but with a more expanded list of jobs, higher pay and a more inclusive age range.  This would not in itself provide the answer but is an example of a way to provide jobs to replace those that are being permanently being eliminated.

    Jacobin Magazine: Why We Need a Federal Job Guarantee, Feb 2017 -Mark Paul, William Darity Jr, Darrick Hamilton


    When new factories are built they include more and more automation.  That decreases the number of jobs.

    When I was working as an engineer a number of times I proposed building an automatic microwave test system.  The bean counters wanted a proposal showing that the all up cost of the system would be less than the labor savings over the life of the system.  The first few times I did that the system was not built.  But eventually we built a system.  That was when we made a startling discovery.  There were intangible benefits that were orders of magnitude higher than the labor savings.  That's to say a company gets financial benefits far in excess of the labor saving when they automate.  This is why modern factories are using as much automation as they can get.  It's also the reason that you will not see factories removing automated equipment.

    The New York Times published "How Trump Reshaped the Election Map" showing changes (mostly Democrat to Republican) in the mid North East (aka: the rust belt).  There's a lesson from car sales that a disgruntled customer will tell 10 friends, but that was before the internet (think YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, &Etc) where millions of people will view a video in a matter of days.  So, for everyone who looses their job permanently because of a plant closing the number of people who know about it is much more than just immediate friends and family.

    After Trump won the election there are articles saying Trump's solution is higher import tariffs, but they are wrong.  The loss of domestic jobs is only partially caused by exporting jobs the larger factor is increase in productivity.  Not only does this result in fewer jobs, but because of the post Ronald Reagan tax cuts it also results in obscene C-suite annual paychecks.  I think the marginal income tax rate needs to be about 50% or higher to discourage that.  Note that stores like Walmart, Harbor Freight, Dollar Stores and many "Main St" shops are selling imported products for much less than a domestic product would sell for.  These low cost products are the benefit side of trade deals, the lost jobs and closed businesses are the cost of trade deals.

    Productivity increases have been and will continue to eliminate jobs on a large scale.  Note this will effect not only blue collar jobs but also white collar jobs.  This means that basing the economics of families on wage earners is not a viable thing to do.

    UN Conference on Trade and Development - Robots threaten up to two thirds of developing country jobs, but could be an opportunity too - 8 Nov 2016

    FiveThirtyEight - What Would Happen If We Just Gave People Money?
    Apr 25, 2016 - While mostly about the Swiss Universal Basic Income plan that was considered at the national level, it's making the same point as the above UN article, namely: "In a much-written-about 2013 paper, two Oxford economists estimated that 47 percent of all U.S. jobs were at risk of computerization. Increasingly, technologists envision basic income as a “hack,” or fix, to the system — it offers a way of coping with an economic future dominated by automation, a fallback plan for when most human labor isn’t valued or needed."

    NYT - Trump Rides a Wave of Fury That May Damage Global Prosperity
    NYT - More Wealth, More Jobs, but Not for Everyone: What Fuels the Backlash on Trade By
    Note that even China has this problem with modern factories highly automated creating unemployment.
    Universal Basic Income for everyone potentially could cause inflation if it drives up wages for the remaining jobs.  If you don't like your job and are willing to live at the basic income level you can quit your job and do anything you like. 
    The great thing about a basic income is that it will be spent making business very happy because they have buyers.  It's a win-win (Wiki) situation.

    Bill Clinton was the first Democrat to adopt the Republican strategy of getting large corporate donations.  Clinton choose Wall St. as the source of these donations and in that process the Democrats quit being the party of working men.  The 2016 election say working men leave the Democratic party.  The mistake they made is that now neither parts represents them.  The Republican party gets their big donations from business, not working people.

    Trump Election Upset

    Nov 10 2016

    I think Trump won because:

    Russian (Iran, Turkey & Guiana) Connection

    I'm interested in this topic since it mirrors my comments above about how the U.S. today looks like Russia in the 1960s, i.e. a third world country, banana republic, &Etc.  This has nothing to do with why H.R. Clinton lost the 2016 election.  The reason for that is the same as for brexit (Wiki) and Emmanuel Macron (Wiki, a man with no political experience, just like Trump).  These results were a vote against the establishment.  You might say a brick through the window.  That's to say the people who made these votes knew full well that the result will be breaking the current government, but they are willing to pay that price in the hope of changing it (an idea Obama used to win his election and which he failed in a big way to deliver on).  See: Democrats the same as Republicans on the big issues above.
    Wiki: Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections - Timeline -

    There were a number of Russian incidents related to Trump.

    1973 October 29 - New Yorker: Richard Nixon and the Firing of Archibald Cox - seems like a couple of name changes and this article could be published in July 2018
    1977 April 7 -  Ivana Zelníčková (Wiki) marries Donald Trump - she was born in Czechoslovakia (Wiki)
    1987 July 3 - Trump visits Russia (Medium: 2017 April 6 - Confused by Trump’s Russia Ties? This timeline breaks it down for you - WaPo 1988 Dec 3: From the archives: When Trump hoped to meet Gorbachev in Manhattan -
    1987 September 1 - NYT, WaPo, Boston GLobe: BETWEEN THE LINES OF A MILLIONAIRE'S AD - "...Trump argues that the United States should present Western Europe and Japan with a bill for America's efforts to safeguard the passage of oil tankers in the Persian Gulf."
    1987 September 2 - NYT: TRUMP GIVES A VAGUE HINT OF CANDIDACY - "Trump is planning a trip in October to New Hampshire, site of the first Presidential primary."
    1987 November 1 -book:  The Art of the Deal by D. Trump
    1990 March 1 - Playboy: The Playboy Interview With Donald Trump -
    1992 - Center for Public Integrity: The Torturers' Lobby (pdf) - Black, Manafort, Stone and Kelly represented Nigeria, Kenya, Zaire, Equatorial Guinea, Saudi Arabia, and Somalia, Philippines, Angola among others
    2000 October - GAO: Possible Money Laundering by U.S. Corporations Formed for Russian Entities -
    2004 May 20 - SDNY: Defendant Convicted Of Ordering 2004 Murder Of Jeweler In Midtown Manhattan - Eduard Nektalov shot in the head by Hector Rivera just before he was to testify. Background on Nektalov=NY Mag: Iced -he did money laundring
    2004 July 9 -Wiki: Paul Klebnikov, author of Godfather of the Kremlin: Boris Berezovsky and the looting of Russia & chief editor of the Russian edition of Forbes was murdered in Moscow.
    2005 January 22 -  Melanija Knavs (Wiki) marries Donald Trump - she was born in Slovenia (Wiki)
    2005 June - AP March 22, 2017 Exclusive: Before Trump job, Manafort worked to aid Putin - pitched to Oleg Deripaska (Wiki) and was paid from 2006 to at least 2009
    2006 June - Playboy mansion, The Apprentice taping: Karen McDougal (Wiki), 1998 Playmate of the Year & sexiest playmate of the 1990s.  (See: 2018 Feb 16 The New Yorker) has affair with Trump after Barron was born and while married to Melania.  Goes to support dossier.
    2005 September 27 - Case 1:00-cv-02208-JDB - OAO ALFA BSNK et al, v. Center for Public Integrity et al - Alfa Bank’s owners had “assumed an unforeseen level of prominence and influence in the economic and political affairs of their nation,”
    2006 November 1 - Alexander Litvinenko falls sick  and on November 22, 2006 he dies from polonium-210 (Wiki) poisoning.   The 210Po was discovered by Dr Matthew Puncher who worked for the UK Atomic Weapons Establishment (Wiki).  See 2016 November 24 for Dr. Punchers death.  The MI6 officer who investigated the case was Christopher Steele (Wiki, 2017 November 15 - Guardian)
    2007 March 1 - Paul Joyal (Wiki) shot, but not killed. Immediately calls Oleg Kalugin to warn him.
    2007 March 3 - WaPo: Expert on Soviet Intelligence Shot in Adelphi - Paul Joyal
    2007 March 5 - WaPo: Analyst Robbed During Shooting - related to the death of London Times reporter Daniel McGrory? On 2007 February 20, McGrory & Paul Joyal appeared on same TV program.
    2007 October 15 - CNN (transcript): Trump praises Putin in interview
    2007 December 17 - NYT: Real Estate Executive With Hand in Trump Projects Rose From Tangled Past - Felix H. Sater (Satter)
    2008 Trump sells mansion de L'Amitié at 515 N. County Road, Tampa Bay, FL to Dmitry Rybolovlev (Wiki) for $100 million (he paid 40 Million). "The Florida house, with its 475 feet of frontage on the Atlantic Ocean, was in “unlivable” condition when Donald Trump sold it, Ms. Bersheda said. (NYT) "  Dmitry also bought a property from the wife of a Citigroup CEO for a record price (money laundering?).
    2008 September 15 - eTurboNews: Executive Talk: Donald Trump Jr. bullish on Russia and few emerging markets - "For Trump, Russia is the emerging market worth investing in currently, however in caveat into the high-end sector he counts on his international experience in the market. Trump said: “The emerging world in general attributes such brand premium to real estate that we are looking all over the place, primarily Russia. "
    2008 September - (Wiki): "Donald Trump Jr., then an executive vice president of The Trump Organization, states, "Russians make up a pretty disproportionate cross-section of a lot of our assets, say, in Dubai, and certainly with our project in SoHo and anywhere in New York. We see a lot of money pouring in from Russia."[10][11]"
    2009 July 28 - Moscow Times: Leather and Gold at Ivankov’s Burial - reputed mobster Vyacheslav Ivankov killed in shooting
    2009 October 24 - CNN: FBI: Mobster more powerful than Gotti - "Semion Mogilevich (Wiki) may be the most powerful man you've never heard of."
    2009 November 16 - Sergei Magnitsky (Wiki) "dies" in Russian prison (Wiki)
    2009 November 27 -  NYT: Kazakh Bank Lost Billions in Western Investments - (see TRMS: 2018 January 17)
    2009 December 4 - WSJ: Hevesi Linked to Pay-to-Play as Broidy Admits Guilt - see TRMS 2018 March 9
    2010 June 29 - Daily Mail: Red-headed femme fatale among 11 'Russian deep cover agents' accused of Cold War-style plot to spy on America - FBI unsealed in 2010 - Anna Chapman (Wiki) - Illegals Program (Wiki) - The Americans TV Series 2013 - 2018 (Wiki)
    2010 August 16 Gareth Williams (Wiki) dies under suspicious circumstances (see: 2017 June 20 - BuzzFeed) (also see: KGB defector: Russia killed the British spy found in a duffel bag
    2011 March ? -TED: Cracking Stuxnet  (Wiki) , a 21st-century weapon - malware to cause centrifuges in Iran to explode "Ralph Langner: Okay, you really want to hear that? Yeah. Okay. My opinion is that the Mossad is involved, but that the leading force is not Israel. So the leading force behind that is the cyber superpower. There is only one, and that's the United States -- fortunately, fortunately. Because otherwise, our problems would even be bigger."
    2011 May 14 - NYT: Secret Desert Force Set Up by Blackwater's Founder -
    2011 June 25 & 26 - Paul Manafort emails violating FARA Case 1:18-cr-00083-TSE Document 81-1 Filed 06/04/18
    2011 July 21 - Paul Manafort Contract for strategic communications Case 1:18-cr-00083-TSE Document 81-1 Filed 06/04/18 (pdf pg 37) payment to bank in Zurich 1.17 million Euros
    2011 September - Obama promotes Flynn Lieutenant General (Wiki) and assigns him to the Office of the Driector of National Intelligence (Wiki)
    2011 October 11 -  NYT: Former Ukraine Premier Is Jailed for 7 Years - Viktor F. Yanukovich puts his political rival in jail. (TRMS: Manafort's job was to put a shine on dictators.")
    2012 February 29 - Twitter: Alexander Torshin "After the elections we will make Russian NRA. I hope for your help. ))))
    2012 April 17 - Obama nominates Flynn (Wiki) to be director of the  DIA (Wiki)
    2012 June 10 - Paul Manafort Third-Party Champions on Ukraine Case 1:18-cr-00083-TSE Document 81-1 Filed 06/04/18 (pdf pg 49)
    2012 September 19 - Something related to a senator on the Foreign Relations Committee S. Res. 466, a resolution calling for the release from prison of former Prime Minister of Ukraine Yulia Tymoshenko, with amendments in the nature of a substitute - sponsored by James M Inhofe (R-OK) Condemns the politically motivated prosecution and imprisonment of former Prime Minister of Ukraine Ms. Yulia Tymoshenko.
    2012 November 10 - Alexander Perepilichny (Wiki) murdered (see BuzzFeed 2017 June 12, Buzz Feed 2015 May 5, Guardian 2013 June 7) - Russian whistle blower relating to $230 million that was taken from the Russian Treasury.
    2012 November 27 - TheHill: Elections underlined Ukraine’s commitment to democracy and the West by KOSTYANTYN GRYSHCHENKO - about election on the next day 2012 October 28 (Wiki)
    2012 Nov/Dec - Magnitsky Act (Wiki) passed congress - to punish Russian officials responsible for the death of Russian lawyer Sergei Magnitsky - effects 18 Russians (Wiki) & it repealed the Jackson–Vanik amendment (Wiki) to the Trade Act of 1974.
    2012 December 19 -  Freedom House: A Misguided Report on the Tymoshenko Case - the law firm "Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, and Flom" was hired by Paul Manafort for PR reasons and they made a false report on why Viktor F. Yanukovich jailed his political rival.
    2013 February 27 - Wikileaks: Re: [OS] US/CT- Unregistered Foreign Agent Cases - covering 2007 to 2009 (Wiki - Stratfor)
    2013 March 4 - The Hill: op ed edited by Manafort and submitted under another name.
    Some guesses 03/04/13 articles:
    Ted Cruz and Sarah Palin: CPAC 2013 will determine America's future by Bernie Quigley
    Jeb Bush pushes back against pathway to citizenship for illegal immigrants by Mike Lillis
    Baucus makes US-EU trade deal a top priority by Vicki Needham
    White House: No price for access to Obama by Justin Sink
    Reform plans neglect three areas of system by James W. Ziglar
    Skilled immigrants an asset to the US by Gary Shapiro
    2013 March 19 - Gates meeting. See 2018 February 23 statement of offense pg 7 paragraph 16. "..meeting involving Manafort, a senior Company A lobbyist that there were no discussions of Ukraine at the meeting.  At the time of his proffer statement, GATES knew that: (a) Manafort and the senior Company A lobbyist had not made the above statements to him; (b) Manafort and the senior Companuy A lobbyists had told him that the meeting went well; (c) GATES had participated with Manafort in preparing a report that memorialized for Ukraine leadership the pertinent Ukraine discussions that Manafort represented had taken place at the meeting; and (d) Manafort told GATES in 2016 that Manafort told his FATRA lawyer that there had been no discussion of Ukraine at the meeting."
    2013 April 16 - arrest warrent served at 63A Trump Tower (see: 2016 September 14 Mother Jones) -Alimzhan Tokhtakhounov, Miss Universe Pageant, Vladimir Kozhin,
    2013 June - BuzzFeed 2017 April 3: FBI interviewed Carter Page about his relationship with Russians
    2013 August 24 - NYT: Trump University Made False Claims, Lawsuit Says -
    2013 August ? - Carter Page writes in a letter  (TRMS  2018 Feb 5) "Over the past half year, I have had the privilege to serve as an informal advisor to the staff of the Kremlin"
    2013 September 10 Manhattan U.S. Attorney Announces Civil Forfeiture Complaint Against Real Estate Corporations Allegedly Involved In Laundering Proceeds Of Russian Tax Refund Fraud Scheme
    The Trump Tower meeting where an attorney from this case ( Natalia Veselnitskaya) was in attendance happened on 2016 June 9 while this case was ongoing
    Preet Bharara for the SDNY Sessions fired Prett on 2017 March 11 ie. while this case was ongoing! (Wiki)
    United States v. Prevezon Holdings Ltd. (1:13-cv-06326) (Court Listener)  as of 2019 January 20 the last entry is on 2018 March 30)
    Click here to view chart(s) (list of Manhattan properties)
    U.S. v. Prevezon et al. Exhibit B - Org chart Russian Treasury at top and Prevexon 8160 at the bottom Alpha Bank in the middle (815 Million rubles in, 1,185 million rubles (about US$18 Million out)
    U.S. v Prevezon et al. Complaint
    2013 September 11 - Twitter: Donald J. Trump:  Weiner is gone, Spitzer is gone - next will be lightweight A.G. Eric Schneiderman.  Is he a crook? Wait and see, worse than Spitzer or Weiner
    2013 November 7 - Trump’s Cessna jet leavs Asheville NC 9:57pm, lands at New York’s La Guardia 11:05pm (Bloomberg 2017 July 13)
    2013 November 8 - Trump at Nobu restraunt in Moscow with Emin (Facebook) for 2 hour meal,  then to Backstage Restaurant for Agalarov’s 58 birthday party.
    2013 November 9 - Trump at Ritz Hotel (Facebook) filming music video for Emin. Trump Tweet 6:21 am,
    2013 November 9 - Miss Universe Pageant in Russia (Wiki).  Trump there probably Friday (8 Nov) to Sunday (10 Nov).
    2013 November 9 - RT: US 'Miss Universe' billionaire plans Russian Trump Tower -
    2013 November 10 - Trump flies home, Tweet 6:44pm
    2013 - "The adviser, Carter Page, met with a Russian intelligence operative named Victor Podobnyy in New York, who was later charged by the US government alongside two others for acting as unregistered agents of a foreign government. (Buzzfeed 2017 April 3)
    2013 November 11 - Twitter: "@AgalarovAras I had a great weekend with you and your family. You have done a FANTASTIC job. TRUMP TOWER-MOSCOW is next. EMIN was WOW!"
    2013 November 22 - Financial Times: ENRC ‘should have set off alarm bells’ - (See: TRMS 2018 January 17)
    2013 November 30 - The Hill: Research Associate Veronika Kyrylenko: Ukraine, the runaway bride - was this article written by Paul Manafort? Case 1:18-cr-00083-TSE Document 81-1 Filed 06/04/18 (pdf pg 60)
    2013 December 10 - NYT: Kerry’s Statement on Ukraine - President Yanukovych (manafort is his adviser at this time)
    2014 ? Internet Research Agency sets up operations in Russia with $1M per month budget to influence US. (See DOJ indictment 2018 February 16) (a few months after Trump was in Russia for Miss Universe)
    2014 January 2 - WashingtonTimes: TORSHIN: Kalashnikov, the man and the weapon - "...attending the National Rifle Association’s annual meeting in Houston"
    2014 January 22 - Yulya Alferova Tweets "I'm sure @realDonaldTrump will be great president! We'll support you from Russia!  America needs ambitious leader!" photo of Trump & Yulya, ex wife of Artem Kly

    2014 February - (Yahoo 2018 March 8): Ivanka Trump flew to Moscow to scout potential sites for the (Trump Tower Moscow) project with Emin Agalarov.
    2014 Feb 6 - Guardian: US official apologises to EU counterparts for undiplomatic language  - Victoria Nuland's phone hacked and leaked after her support for the people of Ukraine. see 2013 Dec 10 Guardian: Kerry's statement on Ukraine and TRMS
    2018 July 12
    2014 February 14 - NYT: 2 in Russian Protest Band Held, Then Freed, in Sochi - Pussy Riot song Chaika (Wiki) Yury Chaika (Wiki) alluding to findings of Anti-corruption Foundation. Video "Don't call him "Dimon" with English subtitles.  Web page (Google Translate) - TRMS
    2004 February 20: NYT: op ed How Ukraine Can Be Saved Romano Prodi - written by P. Manafort Case 1:18-cr-00083-TSE Document 81-1 Filed 06/04/18  (pdf pg 85) How Ukraine Can Be Saved - Romano Prodi, the prime minister of Italy from 1996 to 1998 and from 2006 to 2008, and the president of the European Commission from 1999 to 2004, is the United Nations special envoy for the Sahel region of Africa.
    2014 February 20 -Wiki: Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation - International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis - List of people sanctioned during the Ukrainian crisis - this stopped the Trump Tower Moscow project -Yahoo 2018 March 8:... the demise of Trump’s project with the Agalarovs influenced Trump’s view of sanctions: “They had interrupted a business deal that Trump was keenly interested in.”)
    2014 February 25 - Observer: The Politics and Power of A.G. Schneiderman - Jared Kushner is the publisher of The New York Observer
    2014 February 28 - BuzzFeed: Ukraine Pleads For Help Against "Russian Invasion" Of Crimea -
    2014 March  6 EO 13660   Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine (see Ukraine & Russia Sanctions DoS): BOLOTOV, Valery, GIRKIN, Igor Vsevolodovich, KAUROV, Valery Vladimirovich, MENYAILO, Sergei Ivanovich, PONOMARYOV, Vyacheslav, PURGIN, Andrey Yevgenyevich, PUSHILIN, Denis (see: OFAC: Ukraine & Russian sanctions - This may be the heart of all the current Russian interference)
    2014 March 10 - Trump twitter: "The #CNBC 25 poll is a joke. I was in 9th place and taken off. (Politics?) No wonder @CNBC ratings are going down the tubes." (see: 2019 January 17 WaPo) Michael Cohen tried to rig this poll as well as the Drudge Report pole, but didn't move Trump to the top.
    2014 March 17 EO 13661 Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine
    2014 March 20 EO 13662  Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Situation in Ukraine
    2014 December 19 EO 13685 Blocking Property of Certain Persons and Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to the Crimea Region of Ukraine
    2014 March 20 - NYT: Obama Steps Up Russia Sanctions in Ukraine Crisis - see EO 13694: 2015 April 1, EO 13757 2016 Dec 26
    2014 April 30 - Obama administration asked Flynn to leave as head of the military (and Defense Intelligence Agency) (Wiki) and he did in August. (What did they know then?)
    2014 August 7 - Michael Flynn retires from military and is no longer head of the DIA.
    2014 August 14 - Guardian: Dmitry Medvedev Twitter account hacked - maybe a hoax by the Internet Research Agency
    2014 October 8 - DIA sends letter to recently retired general Michael Flynn explaining his responsibility regarding accepting foreign money. 18USC207(a)(1) Lifetime Ban, 18USC207(a)(2) 2-year ban, 18USC207(c) 1-year cooling off, 18USC207(b) 1-year ban on aiding or advising, 18USC207(f) 1-year ban on assistance to foreign governments, 6. Foreign Compensation Requires Advance Approval (per Constitution A1, S9, C8 (emoluments)
    2015 January ? - (Yahoo 2018 March 8): Trump and the Russians: A new book describes how it all began — at a Las Vegas nightclub - meeting in Trump Tower: Trump, Emin Agalarov, Rob Goldstone - meeting in Trump Tower with Goldstone & Emin Agalarov
    2015 February 2 - Michael Cohen asks John Gauger to rig a Drudge Report poll for $50,000 (see: 2019 January 17 WaPo).  He did not do a good job, but was paid some cash and a boxing glove.
    2015 February 27 - Boris Nemtsov (Wiki) assassinated in Moscow (Wiki) - anti-Putin activist
    2015 March 6 - FinCEN: FinCEN Fines Trump Taj Mahal Casino Resort $10 Million for Significant and Long Standing Anti-Money Laundering Violations - "Trump Taj Mahal has a long history of prior, repeated BSA violations cited by examiners dating back to 2003"
    2015 March 11 - Valdai: Vienna Talks on Syria: Diplomacy at Work by Joseph Mifsud - pro-Putin propaganda
    2015 March 14 - Maria Butina emails Person 2 Torshin confirmed his desire in our Russian-American project".  (see affidavit 2018 July pg 10) and "for building this communications channel".
    2015 March 24 - Maria Butina emails Paul E. about the GOP likely to obtain control of US (see affidavit 2018 July pg 5 - 6) 4 months prior to her question to Trump in Las Vegas (2015 July 11 - 14)
    2015 March 25 - SDNY: https://www.justice.gov/sites/default/wp-content/uploads/usao-sdny/legacy/2015/03/25/Tokhtakhounov%2C%20Alimzhan%20et%20al.%20Indictment_7.pdf - Russian crime boss
    2015 March 30 - Maria Butina emails organizer of Prayer Breakfast for going to Moscow for a meeting. hoping Putin would attend the 2017 Prayer Breakfast. 
    2015 April 1 - Executive Order 13694 (Wiki): Blocking the Property of Certain Persons Engaging in Significant Malicious Cyber-Enabled Activities
    2015 April 21 - CNN: Sanctions will cost Russia more than $100 billion - Dmitry Medvedev made the estimate - this could be the what Russia was trying to get reversed by electing Trump.
    2015 June 2 - NYT: The Agency By Adrian Chen (Russian Language version)- Columbian Chemicals hoax (Wiki) perpetrated by the Internet Research Agency of Russia (Wiki). #EbolaInAtlanta, #shockingmurderinatlanta,
    2015 June 16 - Trump announces he's running for president (Wiki)
    2015 late summer - Michael Flynn meets Trump (WaPo 2016 Aug 15)
    2015 July 11 to 14 Freedom Fest, Paris, Las Vegas: Trump has prepared answer to question from Ms. Marina Butina and called on her- YouTube: Trump answers question on Russia at FreedomFest 2015 - the sanctions are in relation to VTB Bank, not the Obama election sanctions, i.e. to help Russia pay Trump (See: 2018 November 30 TRMS)
    2015 July 23 - The Diplomat: Donald Trump’s Problem With the US-Korea Alliance -
    2015 September 21 - NYT: Malaysia’s Leader, Najib Razak, Faces U.S. Corruption Inquiry - A federal grand jury is examining allegations of corruption involving the prime minister, Najib Razak, and people close to him
    2015 September 28 - Boris Karpichkov (Wiki) was the source of the article about Williams murder see: 2010 August 16
    2015 October 12 -Minority Report from House: email from Fleix Sater to Trump Organization attorney Michael Cohen titled "Andrey L. Kostin - CEO VTB Bank": "Kostin who is Putins top finance guy and CEO of 2nd largest bank in Russia is on board and has indicated he would finance Trump Moscow.  This is major for us, not only the financing aspect by Kostins position in Russia, extremely powerful and respected.  Now all we need is Putin on board and we are golden, meeting with Putin and top deputy is tentatively set for the 14th.  See buddy I can not only get Ivanka to spin in Putin's Kremlin office chair on 30 minutes notice, I can also get a full meeting.  I will call you later today to discuss getting the LOI signed." (note 165)
    2015 October 28 - Trump signs letter of intent for Trump World Tower Moscow (see 2018 May 17 Buzz Feed, 2018 December 19 CNN) ( LOI.pdf + Schedule 1 & 2) 1:18-cv-03501-JGK
    2015 November 3 - Felix Sater, a longtime Trump associate with a criminal past, writes to Trump's personal lawyer, Michael Cohen, bragging he has proven contacts in Moscow who could help get Trump elected. (NYT: Trump Associate Boasted That Moscow Business Deal ‘Will Get Donald Elected’ 2017 August 28)
    2015 November 5 - Mikhail Lesin’s battered body was discovered in his Dupont Circle hotel room on the morning of Nov. 5, 2015, with blunt-force injuries to the head, neck, and torso (BuzzFeed 2017 July 28).  In Washington to be interviewed by DOJ about Russia Today (RT) news outlet. undated ME DOJ News Release (Press Release March 10, 2016) wtop 2018 October 26,
    2016 January - Michael Flynn "...applies to renew his security clearance - using a Form SF-86" (SF86-10.pdf) Note 1  (The Hill 4/28/17) a month after he traveled to Moscow
    2016 January 10 - Seth Rich murdered near his residence in Washington DC (Wiki) - possible link to leaked DNC email is right wing conspiracy theory.
    2016 January 26 - NYT: Malaysia Closes Investigation Into Prime Minister Najib Razak’s Funds - Razak's hand picked attorney general said there's no problem. $681 million "was a personal gift from the Saudi royal family".
    2016 February - Michael Flynn is informal adviser to Trump
    2016 March - FBI investigation moved back to March (see April 7, 2017 - Pyotr Levashov)
    2016 March 3 - Jeff Sessions leads National Security advisory committee (USA Today 17 March 2016)
    2016 March 4 - BBC: Donald Trump's business links to the mob - Sater-Bayrock promotes branding - Trump Soho, Trump Fort Lauderdale & Trump Camelback AZ.
    & Trump
    2016 March 6 - "that improving relations with Russia is a principal concern for the Trump campaign" (NYT 2017 Nov 2 & WaPo 2017 Oct 30)
    2016 March 14 - Papadopoulos, then in Italy, meets a London-based professor. - Joseph Mifsud (NYT2017Dec30)
    2016 March 15 - Russian Agents hacked Yahoo (NYT) Alexsey BelanDmitry Aleksandrovich Dokuchaev, Igor Anatolyevich Sushchin, Karim Baratov - (Indictment)
    2016 March 16 - Wikileaks: Hillary Clinton Email Archive - goes on line - her private email server
    2016 March 17 - Jeff Sessions speech "There is no reason for the U.S. and Russia to be at this loggerheads," (USA Today 17 March 2016)
    2016 March 19 - Podesta's emails hacked (Wiki) - Wikileaks: The Podesta Emails -  21 March according to U.S. v. Viktor Borisovich Netyksho, et al (1:18-cr-215, District of Columbia) 
    2016 March 21 - WaPo Trump names four foreign policy advisers:
    "Carter Page, PhD,"
    "George Papadopoulos – he's an energy and oil consultant, excellent guy,"
    "Walid Phares, who you probably know, PhD, adviser to the House of Representatives caucus, and counter-terrorism expert" (Wiki)
    Honorable Joe Schmitz, [former] inspector general at the Department of Defense; [retired]
    2016 March 24 - Papadopoulos email "to arrange a meeting between us and the Russian leadership to discuss U.S.-Russia ties under President Trump."
    2016 March 28 - NYT: Donald Trump Hires Paul Manafort to Lead Delegate Effort - his first talking point to get job was I will do thi
    2016 March 31 - Trump Instagram: national security meeting with Papadopoulos sitting at the center of the table
    2016 March 31 - Sessions said that at Campaign meeting he "pushed back" against Papadopoulos suggestion of meeting with Russians - not so, see: 2016 March 24 above, 2018 March 18 Reuters.
    2016 April - Michael Flynn (it took 3 months to process the January application) has clearance renewed. (NBC)
    2016 April - NBCnews 2017 May 8:  Flynn Never Told DIA That Russians Paid Him -
    2016 April - DNC emails hacked by Russia and DNC calls in Crowdstrike (Wiki) to investigate
    2016 April 10 - NBC Meet the Press: Manafort: “I’m not working for any clients right now other than Mr. Trump.” - a lie since he was working on the Kilimnik Peace Plan. (see: 2019 January 13 WaPo)
    2016 April 11 - NYT: Donald Trump Hires Paul Manafort to Lead Delegate Effort - for the upcoming Republican convention
    2016 April 11 Briefing by James Clapper: UNLOCKING THE SECRETS: How to Use the Intelligence Community - 102 pages of slides, election stuff starts @ pg 12, but most of the pages after that are redacted.
    2016 April 18- S.284  - Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act  (Wiki) because of Russian killing of Magnitsky while he was trying to expose financial fraud
    2016 April 18 - 1:18-cv-03501-JGK: Russian intelligence operatives successfully hacked into the DNC’s computer network
    2016 April 25 - Papadopoulos email: "The Russian government has an open invitation by Putin for Mr. Trump to meet him when he is ready."
    2016 April 26 Papadopoulos email: "the Russians had emails of Clinton ... thousands of emails." 1:18-cv-03501-JGK
    2016 April 26 - WaPo: Inside Trump adviser Manafort’s world of politics and global financial dealmaking - Oleg Deripaska, Richard Gates, Charlie Black, Roger Stone
    2016 April 27 - Trump Speech at The National Interest Mayflower Hotel - "The Center for the National Interest invited Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak and several other ambassadors to the speech." attended by Sessions and Kushner, among other Trump aides.  Looks like there were no real conversations here.  Trump quote from speech: “I believe an easing of tensions and improved relations with Russia — from a position of strength only — is possible, absolutely possible,”  Speech edited by Papadopoulos (NYT 2017Dec30)
    2016 April (late) - at a London hotel, Mr. Mifsud told Mr. Papadopoulos that he had just learned from high-level Russian officials in Moscow that the Russians had “dirt” on Mrs. Clinton in the form of “thousands of emails,” (NYT 2017Dec30)
    2016 April 29 - (book: Hacks by Brazile) DNC learns they have been hacked and they contact the FBI and CrowdStrike
    2016 May - Aug - RNC pays Hamilton Trading Group $34,100 for Russian connections of HRC (Politico) - Gennady Vasilenko, Jack Platt, Ben Wickham
    2016 May - Manaffort meets with Kilimnik (WaPo 2017 June 19)
    2016 May 4 - Papadopoulos email to Corey Lewandowski: "What do you think? Is this something we want to move forward with?"
    2016 May 4 - Times (UK): Say sorry to Trump or risk special relationship, Cameron told - David Cameron should apologise for calling Donald Trump “divisive, stupid and wrong” George Papadopoulos told The Times.
    2016 May 9 - Chris Christie named to be head of Trump Transition team (CNN)
    2016 May 14 - Domain name Rebuilding America Now registered - Updated 2018 May 14 (closed?), Registrar Expiration Date: 2019 May 13 (closed early?)
    2016 May 16 - "In May 2016, a Russian military intelligence officer bragged to a colleague that his organization, known as the GRU, was getting ready to pay Clinton back for what President Vladimir Putin believed was an influence operation she had run against him five years earlier as Secretary of State. The GRU, he said, was going to cause chaos in the upcoming U.S. election." (Time 2017 May 18: Inside Russia’s Social Media War on America)
    2016 May 18 - LA Times: U.S. intelligence official says foreign spy services are trying to hack presidential campaign networks - James Clapper (see: 2016 April 11): "We’ll probably have more” cyberattacks on the campaign trail"
    2016 May 18 - AP: Trump unveils list of potential picks for Supreme Court seat - 1st list - "Trump’s list is also notable for the names that don’t appear. It omits two of the biggest stars in the conservative legal world, Judge Brett Kavanaugh of the federal appeals court in Washington, and former Bush administration Solicitor General Paul Clement."
    2016 May 19 - NYT: Trump Aide Paul Manafort Promoted to Campaign Chairman and Chief Strategist
    2016 May 21 - Papadopoulos email to Manafort: "Request from Russia to meet Mr. Trump,"
    2016 May (late) - Papadopoulos meets with Mr. Alexander Downer, the Australian diplomat, about his contacts with the Russians and the thousands of Hillary Clinton emails.  (This was not public information at this time.) When Australia told the FBI about this it started the investigation, it may not have been started because of the "dossier".  This happened about 2 weeks after the his late April meeting in London hotel with Mr. Mifsud.
    2016 May 24 - RNC: RNC and Donald J. Trump for President Announce 2016 Trump Victory Leadership Team - Vice Chairs: Elliott Broidy see: TRMS 2018 March 9
    2016 June  - Corey Lewandowski (Wiki) resigns as Trump campaign manager
    2016 June -  Jeff Sessions (Wiki) meets with Sergey Kislyak (Wiki) at Heritage Foundation (Wiki) on sidelines of the RNC convention
    2016 June -  Podesta's emails go public and Fusion GPS (Wiki) hires Orbis Business Intelligence (Wiki) to investigate (Christopher Steel is Orbis).
    2016 June 3 - Rob Goldstone (Wiki) emails Donald Trump Jr. (Wiki) offering "damaging information about Hillary Clinton. (see: 2017 July 10 - NYT) Aras (Wiki) & Emin Agalorov (Wiki) were the references used in the email.  Aras Agalorov was mentioned in the Trump Steele Dossier pg 27 (Wiki, see: 80 BuzzFeed).
    2016 June 7 - Donald Trump gives speech where he promises a major speech about Hilary Clinton's crimes on 13 June. (YouTube: Donald Trump Primary Night Speech 6/7/2016) i.e. he know about subject of Trump Tower Meeting.
    2016 June 9 - Trump Tower Meeting (Wiki & Trump campaign–Russian meeting)
    1. Donald Trump Jr.
    2. Jared Kushner
    3. Paul J. Manafort
    4. Natalia Veselnitskaya (Wiki)
    5.  Rinat Akhmetshin (Wiki)
    6. Irakly "Ike" Kaveladze (Wiki)
    7. Anatoli Samochornov, a translator for Veselnitskaya
    8. Rob Goldstone (Wiki)
    Natalia flew to the U.S. just for this meeting. (See: 2017 July 10 NYT, 2016 June 7 Trump Speech. Maybe 8 people in meeting. 2017 July 15: CNN: Trump Tower Russia meeting: At least eight people in the room) (6) Rinat Akhmetshin (Wiki) involved in hacking email, (7) Rob Goldstone (Wiki) - meeting setup at behest of his client Emin Agalarov (Wiki), son of Aras Agalarov (Wiki), plus at least one more (8) Irakly "Ike" Kaveladze (Wiki) (NYT 2017 July 18: Guest List at Donald Trump Jr.’s Meeting With Russian Expands Again)
    2016 June 10 - Politico: Paul Manafort’s Wild and Lucrative Philippine Adventure -
    2016 June 14
    6:05 AM Felix Sater: "Michael, please call me, I want to get the visa's today please let me know (to go to Russia for the 2016 St Petersburg economic forum) (See: BuzzFeed https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/5719169-Trump-Moscow.html#document/p275)
    12:06 PM : Michael you are radio silent please respond"  Michael:  "I will call you in 2 minutes"  "OK"
    2:41 PM "I'm here", "One second and I will be down", "Bar?", No. Atrium snack bar, Coming down"
    At this meeting the trip to Russia was canceled.
     - WaPo: Russian government hackers penetrated DNC, stole opposition research on Trump - (TRMS 2017 Oct 27) story from DNC & CrowdStrike - this story killed the Trump Tower Moscow project (see: 2018 November 30 NBC), 2019 February 5 BuzzFeed) i.e. there's a connection between Russian election interference and Trump Tower Moscow.
    2016 June 14 - Michael Cohen meets in lobby of Trump Tower and tells individual 2 (Sater) that he will not be traveling to Moscow to meet about Trump Tower Moscow (see 2018 November 29 SCO)
    2016 June 15 - “There’s two people I think Putin pays: Rohrabacher (Wiki) and Trump,” .."No really"  McCarthy (Wiki, R-Calif.) said,.." (WP: 2017 May 17)
    2016 June 15 - CrowdStrike: Bears in the Midst: Intrusion into the Democratic National Committee - COZY BEAR and FANCY BEAR
    2016 June 15 - 1:18-cv-03501-JGK: "Russian intelligence agents began disseminating to the public a trove of documents stolen from the DNC and other Democratic party targets. The agents continued these releases through Election Day in 2016. Some documents were disseminated through “Guccifer 2.0,” a fictitious persona created by Russian intelligence agents, and others were disseminated through WikiLeaks."
    2016 June 19 - Papadopoulos email: "The Russian ministry of foreign affairs messaged and said that if Mr. Trump is unable to make it to Russia, if a campaign rep (me or someone else) can make it for meetings? I am willing to make the trip off the record if it's in the interest of Mr. Trump and the campaign to meet specific people."
    2016 June 22: U.S. v. Viktor Borisovich Netyksho, et al (1:18-cr-215, District of Columbia) - pg17 Russia to Guccifer 2.0 "to [s]end any new material [stolen from the DNC] here for us to review and it will have a much higher impact than what you are doing."
    2016 June 27 - WaPo: Michael McFaul (Wiki): How Brexit is a win for Putin - Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin : “Without Great Britain in the E.U., no one will so zealously defend the sanctions against us.”
    2016 June 29 - Wiki: Trump campaign hires Jason Miller as as senior communications adviser.
    2016 July - it became known that Cambridge Analytica (Wiki) is working for Trump campaign
    2016 July 6 - Politico: Trump urges Russia to hack Clinton's email -
    2016 July 6 - U.S. v. Viktor Borisovich Netyksho, et al (1:18-cr-215, District of Columbia) - pg 18: "if you have anything hillary related we want it  in the next tweo [sic] days prefable [sic] because the DNC is approaching and she will solidify bernie supporters behind her after" response "ok... i see"  Organization 1 explained "we think trump has only 25% chance of winning against hillary...so conflict between bernie and hillary is interesting"
    2016 July 7 - WaPo:
    Manafort offered to give Russian billionaire ‘private briefings’ on 2016 campaign (2017 Sep 20) - "...message be sent to Oleg Deripaska, an aluminum magnate with whom Manafort had done business in the past, these people said. “If he needs private briefings we can accommodate,” Manafort wrote in the July 7, 2016, email..."
    2016 July 7 or 8 - Carter Page gives speech to Higher Economic School in Moscow (Trump Steele Dossier pg 30) he tells Sessions (CNN Nov 3, 2017)
    2016 July  - Christopher Steel (Wiki) supplies dossier (Wiki) to FBI agent in Rome.
    2016 July - After Clinton campaign emails are released Mr. Alexander Downer notifies the Australian government about his late May 2016 meeting with Papadopoulos.  Australia notifies the FBI. (TRMS 3Jan2018)
    2016 July  - FBI starts investigation into Russia helping Trump campaign.  He declined the offer to be White House communications director.
    2016 July 11 - 1:18-cv-03501-JGK: "the Trump Campaign intervened to prevent other Republicans from inserting anti-Russian language regarding Ukraine into the GOP platform."
    2016 July 14 to 18 - 1:18-cv-03501-JGK pdf pg 5:  Russian intelligence operatives transmitted stolen DNC documents to WikiLeaks, which promised to release them in time to disrupt the Democratic National Convention.
    2016 July 15 - Twitter: Trump chooses Mike Pence as Vice Presidential running mate.
    2016 July 15 - USA Today: Reports: At least 90 dead in attempted Turkish coup - "...President Obama urged all parties in Turkey to support the government of President Erdogan." "A lawyer for the Turkish government, Robert Amsterdam, said "there are indications" that a cleric living in exile in Pennsylvania (Fethullah Gulen) had "direct involvement" with the coup plotters."
    2016 July 15 - General Michael T. Flynn at Act! for America (Wiki: anti-Muslim, Pro-Trump) Trump campaign event speaks (YouTube) about how the military coup was "worth clapping for" (see 2016 July 26 for Flynn taking the opposite stance for money)
    2016 July 16 - CBS: Donald Trump offered Chris Christie vice president role before Mike Pence, sources say - "Manafort had arranged for Trump to meet with his first choice for the job on July 13: Indiana Governor Mike Pence. "
    2016 July 18 - WaPo: Trump campaign guts GOP’s anti-Russia stance on Ukraine - "...Paul Manafort, worked as a lobbyist for the Russian-backed former Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych for more than a decade." Sessions & Page speek with Kislyak (WaPo 2017 March 2)

    2016 July 19 - NBC: It’s Official: Trump Wins GOP Presidential Nomination -
    2016 July 20 - Pavel_Sheremet died in a car explosion in downtown of Kyiv (Wiki) Prosecutor General Yuriy Lutsenko described it as a murder, the best television reporter in Belarus
    2016 July 20 - DOJ: United States Seeks to Recover More Than $1 Billion Obtained from Corruption Involving Malaysian Sovereign Wealth Fund -
    see TRMS 2018 March 9
    2016 July 21 - LAT: In a shift, Republican platform doesn't call for arming Ukraine against Russia, spurring outrage -
    2016 July 22 - Wikileaks publishes DNC email database (source: Guccifer 2.0 (Wiki, DNC email leak) - this is DNC staffer email
    2016 July 22 - Guccifer 2.0 Tweet - taking credit for supplying WikiLeaks with the Clinton emails.
    2016 July 24 -Trump Twitter: The Democrats are in a total meltdown but the biased media will say how great they are doing! E-mails say the rigged system is alive & well!
    2016 July 25 - 2016 Democratic National Convention (Wiki) - email leak effect on DNC convention (Wiki)
    2016 July 24 - Trump Tweet: "The new joke in town is that Russia leaked the disastrous DNC e-mails, which should never have been written (stupid), because Putin likes me."
    2016 July 24 - Trump Tweet: "If the Republican Convention had blown up with e-mails, resignation of boss and the beat down of a big player. (Bernie), media would go wild
    2016 July 25 - Trump Tweet: "The new joke in town is that Russia leaked the disastrous DNC e-mails, which should never have been written (stupid), because Putin likes me
    2016 July 25? - Debbie Wasserman Schultz (Wiki) is asked to resign by Obama after the DNC email leak (See: 2016 July 22)
    2016 July 25 - Lawfareblog: What Does the US Government Know About Russia and the DNC Hack? -
     2016 July 25 - Stone email to Jerome Corsi, Subject: Get to Julian Assange Body: “Get to Julian Assange @ Ecuadorian Embassy in London and get the pending WikiLeaks emails . . . they deal with (Clinton) Foundation, allegedly.” See 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 July 26 - (see 2018 December 12 Indictment) - Flynn had detailed discussion with Rafiekian about going to work on the behalf of the government of Turkey to go after Fethullah Gulen.  Rafiekian email: "We are ready to engage on what needs to be done".  (see 2016 November 8 The Hill article)
    2016 July 26 - NYT: Spy Agency Consensus Grows That Russia Hacked D.N.C. - DNC emails posted at Wikileaks by "Guccifer 2.0"
    2016 July 26 - TrumpTweet: For the record, I have ZERO investments in Russia. - this killed the Trump World Tower Moscow deal see: 2018 May 17 BuzzFeed
    2016 July 27 - WaPo: The other remarkable, pro-Russia thing that Donald Trump just said -
    2016 July 27 - Breibart: To Destroy ISIS, We Must Give Its Victims the Tools to Fight Back by Sam Patten -
    2016 July 27 - "Russia, if you're listening, I hope you'll be able to find the 30,000 emails that are missing," Trump said, speaking about Hillary Clinton's deleted emails from her private email account from her time as secretary of state. "I think you'll probably be rewarded mightily by our press." (NPR 2016 December 12)
    2016 July 27 - WaPo: The other remarkable, pro-Russia thing that Donald Trump just said - "QUESTION: I would like to know if you became president, would you recognize (inaudible) Crimea as Russian territory? And also if the U.S. would lift sanctions that are (inaudible)? TRUMP: We'll be looking at that. Yeah, we'll be looking.
    2016 July 27 - U.S. v. Viktor Borisovich Netyksho, et al (1:18-cr-215, District of Columbia) pg 7 "22. "For example, on or about July 27 2016, the Conspirators attempted after hours to spearphish for the first time email accounts at a domain hosted by a thirdparty provider and used by Clinton's personal office."
    2016 July 27 - Wired: Here’s What We Know About Russia and the DNC Hack -
    2016 July 29 - WaPo: Here’s what we know about Donald Trump and his ties to Russia -
    2016 July 29 - Atlantic: Did Manafort Use Trump to Curry Favor with a Putin Ally? - Manafort emailed his old lieutenant Konstantin Kilimnik (Russian), who had worked for him for a decade in the Ukrainian capital, Kiev.“I assume you have shown our friends my media coverage, right?” Manafort wrote. “Absolutely,” Kilimnik responded a few hours later from Kiev. “Every article.”“How do we use to get whole,” Manafort asks. “Has OVD operation seen?”
    2016 July 31 - Stone email to Jerome Corsi, Subject: “Call me MON,  Body: Jerome Corsisee's associate in the United Kingdom “should see Julian Assange see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 July 31 - NYT:  How Paul Manafort Wielded Power in Ukraine Before Advising Donald Trump -
    2016 August  & end of September - Trump's server has DNS look up pings from Russian Alpha Bank B and Spectrum Health (tied to DeVos  Prince)
    2016 August ?? - The Intercept: Top-Secret NSA Report Details Russian Hacking Effort Days Before 2016 Election - NSA Report: "Russian General Staff Main Intelligence Directorate.." i.e. not private hackers in Russia, but the Russian Government.
    2016 August 2 - Jerome Corsi email to Stone that he was in Europe and planned to return in or around mid-August. “Word is friend in embassy plans 2 more dumps. One shortly after I’m back. 2nd in Oct. Impact planned to be very damaging.”  “Time to let more than Podesta to be exposed as in bed w enemy if they are not ready to drop HRC. That appears to be the game hackers are now about. Would not hurt to start suggesting HRC old, memory bad, has stroke – neither he nor she well. I expect that much of next dump focus, setting stage for Foundation debacle.”   see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 August 2 - Havana Club Meeting

    Manafort meets with Konstantin  Kilimnik (Wiki) & Rick Gates, at the Grand Havana Room in New York
    At this time Manafort was the Trump  campaign chairman. (Wiki: On June 20, 2016, Trump fired campaign manager Corey Lewandowski and promoted Manafort to the position.) Manafort resigns 2016 August 19.
    https://assets.documentcloud.org/documents/5731934/USA-v-Manafort-2-4-19-Hearing-Redacted-Transcript.pdf - hearing transcript
    "This goes, I think, very much to the heart of what the Special Counsel's Office is investigating.  And in 2016 there is an in-person meeting with someone who the Government has certainly proffered to this Court in the past, is understood by the FBI, assessed to be -- have a relationship with Russian intelligence, that there is [redacted] And there is an in-person meeting at an unusual time for somebody who is the campaign chairman to be spending time, and to be doing it in person.  That meeting and what happened at that meeting is of significance to the special counsel.  The -- in looking at the issue of what [redacted],  all are the focus of -- and are raised by the issue of the August 2nd meeting.

     "...When the meeting broke up, prosecutors said, Mr. Manafort “took the precaution” of leaving with Mr. Gates through a separate door than Mr. Kilimnik. (pdf pg 71 line 6)"

    "There is no question that Mr. Manafort had communications with people at the State Department (Ukraine).  There's no question that Mr. Kilimnik did. [redacted]"

    "Exhibit 236, which is a 302 with respect to Mr. Gates" on "page 3 it discusses the August 2nd meeting.". . . "Mr. Gates talks about the August. 2nd meeting and actually has Mr. Manafort walking Mr. Kilimnik through [redacted]"

    The Ukraine Peace Plan is another issue discussed at this meeting?
      (WaPo 2017 June 19) (Atlantic 2017 Oct 2) (2019 February 7 NYT: )

    2016 August ? - WSJ: "Trump donor Rebekah Mercer in August 2016 asked the chief executive of a data-analytics firm (Wiki) working for Donald Trump’s presidential campaign whether the company could better organize the Hillary Clinton-related emails being released by WikiLeaks..."
    2016 August ? - ...yacht trip with Deripaska and Prikhodko (see 2018 February 27 - WaPo: A self-described sex expert says she will spill information on Trump and Russia to get out of a Thai jail) Nikolai Patrushev in Thailand on 27 Feb 2018 when the story broke, so may have had a part in getting Anastasia Vashukevich arrested in a country known for sexual freedom.
    2016 August 3 - meeting in Trump Tower arranged by Erik Prince: Donald Trump Jr., George Nader, Joel Zamel, "After Mr. Trump was elected, Mr. Nader paid Mr. Zamel a large sum of money, described by one associate as up to $2 million. " see: 2018 May 19: NYT, Wiki: Mohammad bin Salman: 2016 Presidential Election,
    2016 August 4 - CIA Director John Brennan on scheduled phone call with Alexander Bortnikov (FSB) topics: Syria, Russia’s harassment of U.S. diplomats, Russia’s interference in the American election (Yahoo 2018 March 9)
    2016 August 4 - Roger Stone on InfoWars: "The Clinton campaign narrative that the Russians favor Donald Trump and the Russians are leaking this information, this is inoculation because as you said earlier, they know what is coming and it is devastating.  Let's remember that their defense to all the Clinton Foundation scandals has been not "we didn't do it,' but 'you have no proof.  Yes but you have no proof.'  I think Julian Assange has that proof and I think he is going to furnish it for the American people." (CNN April 4, 2018)
    2016 August 4 - Stone wrote to former Trump adviser Sam Nunberg that he had dinner with Assange the night before (WSJ April 2, 2018)
    2016 August 5 - Breitbart, Roger Stone: Dear Hillary: DNC Hack Solved, So Now Stop Blaming Russia -
    2016 August 5 - NYT: I Ran the C.I.A. Now I’m Endorsing Hillary Clinton. by  Michael J. Morell (Wiki) - "Donald J. Trump is not only unqualified for the job, but he may well pose a threat to our national security."   "In the intelligence business, we would say that Mr. Putin had recruited Mr. Trump as an unwitting agent of the Russian Federation."
    2016 August 8 - at Southwest Broward Republican Organization, Roger Stone says: “I actually have communicated with Assange. I believe the next tranche of his documents pertain to the Clinton Foundation, but there’s no telling what the October surprise may be.” (WaPo 13 March 2018 & 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018)
    2016 August 8 - NYT:  50 G.O.P. Officials Warn Donald Trump Would Put Nation’s Security ‘at Risk’ - Letter -
    2016 August 9 - "..Flynn and the Flynn Intel Group (Wiki) signed a contract with Inovo BV (Muckety) for $600,000 over 90 days to run an influence campaign aimed at discrediting Fethullah Gulen (Wiki), an reclusive cleric who lives in Pennsylvania and whom Mr. Erdogan (Wiki) has accused of orchestrating a failed coup in Turkey last summer."
    2016 August 9 - WikiLeaks Tweet - ANNOUNCE: WikiLeaks has decided to issue a US$20k reward for information leading to the conviction for the murder of DNC staffer Seth Rich. (Wiki: Seth Rich Conspiracy)
    2016 August 10 - (see 2016 July 26, 2018 December 12 Indictment, 2016 November 8 The Hill) - email subject: "Truth" to Rafiekian & Flynn: "I met with [Turkish Minister #1] and explained our proposed approach." and another email with same subject: "I just finished in Ankara after several meetings today with [Turkish Minister #2] and [Turkish Minister #1].  I have a green light to discuss confidentiality, budget and scope of the contract."
    2016 August 10 - "Stone tells a local Republican Party group in Florida "I've actually communicated with Julian Assange."" (CNN March 20, 2017)
    2016 August 12 - Stone says in interview “in communication with Julian Assange” but was “not at liberty to discuss what I have.” see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 August 14 NYT: Secret Ledger in Ukraine Lists Cash for Donald Trump’s Campaign Chief - ledger shows Paul Manafort listed for a total of 12.7 million dollars. Viktor F. Yanukovych (Wiki)
    2016 August 15 - U.S. v. Viktor Borisovich Netyksho, et al (1:18-cr-215, District of Columbia) - Guccifer 2.0 writes to Trump campaign "thank u for writing back.. do u find anyt[h]ing interesting in the docs i posted?" 17 Aug: "please tell me if i can help u anyhow... it would be a great pleasure to me".  Sept 9: "what do u think of the info on the turnout model for the decocrats entire presidential campaign."  the response was "[p]retty standard."  & Guccifer 2.0 received a request for stolen documents from a candidate for the U.S. Congress.  The Conspirators responded using the Guccifer 2.0 persona and sent the candidate stolen documents related to the candidate's opponent.
    2016 August 16 - Stone interview: “it became known on this program that I have had some back-channel communication with WikiLeaks and Julian Assange" see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 August 16 WaPo - Trump adviser Michael T. Flynn on his dinner with Putin and why Russia Today is just like CNN - interview with Michael Flynn
    2016 august 17 - NBC - FBI: Trump & his top aids's (including Flynn)  first intelligence briefing - includes warning about Russian attempts to spy (TRMS & NBC: 2017 December 19)
    2016 August 18 - NBC:  Donald Trump Aide Paul Manafort Scrutinized for Russian Business Ties - "In 2008, according to court records, senior Trump aide Paul Manafort's firm was involved with a Ukrainian oligarch named Dmytro Firtash (Wiki) in a plan to redevelop a famous New York hotel, the Drake. The total value of the project was $850 million. Firtash's company planned to invest over $100 million, the records say."
    2016 August 18 - Politico: Manafort’s man in Kiev;The Trump campaign chairman’s closeness to a Russian Army-trained linguist turned Ukrainian political operative is raising questions, concerns. - Konstantin Kilimnik
    2016 August 19 -  Paul Manafort (Wiki) resigned as Trump campaign manager (Russian connections), March 2016 he replaced Corey Lewandowski (Wiki) as Trump's campaign manager.
    2016 August 18 - Stone TV interview: had communicated with the head of WikiLEaks through an “intermediary, somebody who is a mutual friend.”  see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 August 19 -  Paul Manafort creates a shell company and it received millions of dollars (NYT April 12, 2017, 377 Union St)
    2016 August 19 Friday- text from Randy Credico to Stone: “I’m going to have Julian Assange on my show next Thursday.” see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 August 21 Sunday - text from Randy Credico to Stone: “I have Julian Assange on Thursday so I’m completely tied up on that day.”  see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 August 21 - Trump adviser Roger Stone (Wiki, see 2017 May 17 Netflix) repeatedly claimed to know of forthcoming WikiLeaks dumps (CNN: 2017 March 2017) Roger Stone tweets "it will soon the Podesta's time in the barrel." - see: 2016 October 3 and October 7 - 5pm
    2016 Gardian: British spies were first to spot Trump team's links with Russia - "..GCHQ’s then head, Robert Hannigan (Wiki), passed material in summer 2016 to the CIA chief, John Brennan (Wiki)." (See August 25, 2016 below)
    2016 August 23 - Randy Credico asked STONE during a radio interview, “You’ve been in touch indirectly with Julian Assange . . . Can you give us any kind of insight? Is there an October surprise happening?” STONE responded, “Well, first of all, I don’t want to intimate in any way that I control or have influence with Julian Assange I do not. . . . We have a mutual friend, somebody we both trust and therefore I am a recipient of pretty good information.” see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 August 25 Thursday - Julian Assange is guest on Randy Credico's radio show.  see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 August 25 - CIA starts classified briefings of a few Congressmen (Wiki: Gang of 8) (NYT 4/7/2017), starting with Harry Reid (Wiki) that Russia is working to get Trump elected (not just trying to break down democracy).  Reid writes to James B. Comey (Wiki) about it, but the FBI had already started an investigation in July 2016.
    2016 August 26 Friday - text from Randy Credico to Stone: "Julian Assange talked about you last night" Stone asked what he said, Randy responded “He didn’t say anything bad we were talking about how the Press is trying to make it look like you and he are in cahoots.”
    2016 August 27 Saturday- text from Randy Credico to Stone: “We are working on a Julian Assange radio show,” and that Randy was in charge of the project" In a text message sent later that day, Person 2 added, Julian Assange has kryptonite on Hillary.”  see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 August 29 - NYT: Harry Reid's Letter to James Comey - Reid has announced his retirement long before this so is speaking his mind. 27Aug2016.pdf -
    2016 September 5 - WaPo: U.S. investigating potential covert Russian plan to disrupt November election - "...to sow public distrust..." Coordinated by James R. Clapper Jr.
    2016 September 8 - Jeff Sessions (Wiki) meets with Sergey Kislyak (Wiki) in Sessions office
    2016 September 9 - Papadopoulos: “Received a request from Interfax Russian News Agency with Ksenia Baygarova on U.S.-Russia ties under a President Trump. What do you think?” “If the campaign wants me to do it, can answer similar to the answers I gave in April while in Israel.” see: 2018 March 23 WaPo
    2016 September 14 - Mother Jones: How Did an Alleged Russian Mobster End Up on Trump’s Red Carpet? - see 2013 April 16, Alimzhan Tokhtakhounov, Vadim Trincher and Anatoly Golubchik, Illya, Hillel Nahmad,
    2016 September 18 - Stone text to Randy Credico: “I am e-mailing u a request to pass on to  Julian Assange.” Randy responded “Ok,” and added in a later text message, “[j]ust remember do not name me as your connection to Assange you had one before that you referred to.”
    on or about 2016 September 18 - Stone email to Randy Credico an article with allegations against then-candidate Clinton related to her service as Secretary of State. STONE stated, “Please ask Assange for any State or HRC e-mail from August 10 to August 30—particularly on August 20, 2011 that mention [the subject of the article] or confirm this narrative.”

    on or about 2016 September 19 - Stone text to Randy Credico: “Pass my message . . . to Assange.” Randy's response: “I did.” see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 September 19 - meeting at Essex House hotel in Manhattan: Michael T. Flynn, Mr. Cavusoglu (Wiki), Berat Albayrak (Wiki, WikiLeaks) the energy minister for Erdogan, president of Turkey (Wiki), former CIA director James Woolsey (Wiki) - Ref WSJ March 24, 2017 -
    2016 September 19 - Getty Images: General Michael Flynn,Ret, Senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL), and Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump look on as Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi speaks during a meeting at the Plaza Hotel on September 19, 2016 in New York... See: 2018 March 23 WaPo Papadopoulos
    2016 September 20 - New Youk Post: Trump has sit-down with Egypt’s president -
    2016 September 20 - WikiLeaks Tweet to Trump Jr.: “A PAC run anti-Trump site putintrump.org is about to launch," “The PAC is a recycled pro-Iraq war PAC. We have guessed the password. It is ‘putintrump.’ See ‘About’ for who is behind it. Any comments?” (The Atlantic 12 Nov 2017)
    2016 September 20 - WaPo: Securing Tomorrow with David Ignatius: James Clapper Interview -
    2016 September 21 - Trump Jr. Tweet: “Off the record I don’t know who that is, but I’ll ask around, Thanks.” (The Atlantic 12 Nov 2017) Later Trump Jr. notified: Steve Bannon, Kellyanne Conway, Brad Parscale, and Jared Kushner & Hope Hicks, telling them WikiLeaks had made contact.  (The Atlantic 12 Nov 2017)
    2016 September 23 - Yahoo: U.S. intel officials probe ties between Trump adviser and Kremlin - Carter Page see: TRMS 2 Feb 2018
    2016 September 23 - Life News:  Donald Trump Releases 2nd List of Potential Supreme Court Judges: “I Will Nominate Someone Like Scalia” - 2nd list, more diversity, not not Brett Kavanaugh "This list is definitive and I will choose only from it in picking future Justices of the United States Supreme Court." Mueller appointed 2016 May 17 (4 months prior)
    2016 September 25 - Politico: Conway denies Trump campaign ties to Russia figure - "...Carter Page, whose nebulous ties with Russia are under scrutiny, is not connected to the Trump campaign." Conway lied. ""He's certainly not part of the campaign I'm running," said Kellyanne Conway"
    2016 September 26 - WaPo: Trump’s Russia adviser speaks out, calls accusations ‘complete garbage’ -
    2016 September 26 - Carter Page resigns as Trump foreign policy advisor
    2016 September 30 - Interfax: George Papadopoulos: Sanctions have done little more than to turn Russia towards China - see 2018 March 23 WaPo
    2016 September 30 - Randy Credico text to Stone: photo of Randy standing outside the Ecuadorian Embassy in London where  was Assange located. see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 September - U.S. v. Viktor Borisovich Netyksho, et al (1:18-cr-215, District of Columbia) - 34. DNC's analytics stolen (data on individual voters) also see: 2016 October 27 - The Hill Trump aide reveals 'three major voter suppression operations' - It appears that Trump aid had already seen the DNC analytics and had a strategy on how to use them. 
    2016 October (early) - FBI agents interview Mr. Steele about the dossier in Europe. (NYT 2017Dec30)
    2016 October 1 - Forture: DHS Confirms Hackers Targeted Election Systems in 20 States - Russia-based hackers
    2016 October 1 Saturday - Randy Credico text messages to Stone "big news Wednesday . . . now pretend u don’t know me . . . Hillary's campaign will die this week" see: 2018 November 14 NBC, 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 October 2 - Roger Stone email to Randy Credico, Subject: WTF (What The Fuck), link to (? Jesse Rodriguez Tweet, i.e. a fake story) "Due to security concerns at the Ecuadorian Embassy, Julian Assange's balcony announcement on Tues has been cancelled, per @wikileaks” Randy responded to STONE, “head fake.”  see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 October 2 - Roger Stone text to Randy Credico: “Did Assange back off.” On or about October 3, 2016, Randy initially responded, “I can’t tal[k] about it.” After further exchanges with STONE, Person 2 said, “I think it[’]s on for tomorrow.” Person 2 added later that day, “Off the Record Hillary and her people are doing a full-court press they [sic] keep Assange from making the next dump . . . That’s all I can tell you on this line . . . Please leave my name out of it.” see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 October 2 - Roger Stone Tweet:Wednesday@HillaryClinton is done. #Wikileaks.— Roger Stone (@RogerJStoneJr) October 2, 2016 (The Hill 10/02/16 11:22 AM EDT)
    2016 October 3 - STONE wrote to a supporter involved with the Trump Campaign, “Spoke to my friend in London last night. The payload is still coming.” see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 October 3 - Randy Credico- Roger Stone text messages: "There will be an announcement but not on the balcony" see: 2018 November 14 NBC
    2016 October 3 - STONE received an email from a reporter who had connections to a high-ranking Trump Campaign official that asked, “ Julian Assange – what’s he got? Hope it’s good.” STONE responded in part, “It is. I’d tell [the high-ranking Trump Campaign official] but he doesn’t call me back.”
    2016 October 3 - WikiLeaks Tweet to Trump Jr. “Hiya, it’d be great if you guys could comment on/push this story,” (attached was this link: https://twitter.com/wikileaks/status/782906224937410562) (The Atlantic 12 Nov 2017)
    2016 October 3 - Trump Jr. Tweet in response: “Already did that earlier today,”“It’s amazing what she can get away with.” (The Atlantic 12 Nov 2017)
    2016 October 3 - Twitter: Roger Stone: "I have total confidence that @wikileaks and my hero Julian Assange will educate the American people soon #LockHerUp"
    2016 October 4 - Stone email to Stephen K. Bannon (chief campaign strategist) implying he had information about WikiLeaks’s plans to release material that would be damaging to Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton. see: 2018 November 1 WaPo
    2016 October 4 - Brian McCauley receives $5,000 from Michael T. Flynn (see FARA2 below pdf pg 12)
    2016 October 4 - Paiul E. emails "Unrelated to specific presidential campaigns, I've been involved in securing a VERY private line of communication between the Kremlin and key GOP leadeers through, of all conduits the NRA." (see affidavit 2018 July pg 11)
    2016 October 4 - Assange has press conference (YouTube), but nothing about emails.  Shortly afterwards, STONE received an email from the high-ranking Trump Campaign official asking about the status of future releases by Organization 1. STONE answered that the head of Organization 1 had a “[s]erious security concern” but that Organization 1 would release “a load every week going forward.”  Later that day, on or about October 4, 2016, the supporter involved with the Trump Campaign asked STONE via text message if he had “hear[d] anymore from London.” STONE replied, “Yes - want to talk on a secure line - got Whatsapp?” (Wiki) STONE subsequently told the supporter that more material would be released and that it would be damaging to the Clinton Campaign. see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 October 5 - Stone Tweet - “Payload coming. #Lockthemup,”
    2016 October 5 - Maria Butina and Torshin tweet each other (see affidavit 2018 July pg 11 - 13)
    2016 October 7 - Twitter: Jason Miller (Wiki): 2/2 Our data-driven campaign is shifting resources from over-performing markets to new battlegrounds w/in the battlegrounds. Buy is growing. - did he get DNC analytics?
    2016 October 7 - 4pm WaPo: Trump recorded having extremely lewd conversation about women in 2005 (Access Hollywood grab them by the pussy tape) -
    2016 October 7 - 5pm Wikileaks starts publishing Podesta emails (Wiki, Politifact Dec 18, 2016) one hour after release of Access Hollywood tape. - Who caused this release at this time?  See (2019 January 29 WaPo: i.e. Roger Stone)
    U.S. v. Viktor Borisovich Netyksho, et al (1:18-cr-215, District of Columbia) pg 18 "49. On or about October 7, 2016 ...."- mentions the release, but does not specify why it was released just when the pussy tapes were made public

    Shortly after Organization 1’s release, an associate of the highranking Trump Campaign official sent a text message to STONE that read “well done.” In subsequent conversations with senior Trump Campaign officials, STONE claimed credit for having correctly predicted the October 7, 2016 release.  see: 2019_January_23_1:19-cr-00018
    2016 October 7 - DHS: Joint Statement from the Department Of Homeland Security and Office of the Director of National Intelligence on Election Security -  7/30/2018 notice at top of page:
    "Archived Content
    In an effort to keep DHS.gov current, the archive contains outdated information that may not reflect current policy or programs."
    2016 October 7 - WaPo: U.S. government officially accuses Russia of hacking campaign to interfere with elections - Trump knew the timing of this article's release
    2016 October 8 - email From: P. Manafort, To: S. Calk, Subject: ____, "“You are becoming a very good friend and I look forward to building our relationship into both a deeper business and personal one,”
    2016 October 10 - Trump Tweet: Donald Trump, October 10, 2016: "This just came out. WikiLeaks! I love WikiLeaks!" - includes video clip
    2016 October 12 - WikiLeaks Tweet to Trump Jr.: “Hey Donald, great to see you and your dad talking about our publications,” “Strongly suggest your dad tweets this link if he mentions us,” wlsearch.tk “There’s many great stories the press are missing and we’re sure some of your follows [sic] will find it,” WikiLeaks went on. “Btw we just released Podesta Emails Part 4.” (The Atlantic 12 Nov 2017)
    The WikiLeaks Search web page promotes the Seth Rich right wing conspiracy theory (Wiki) that has been debunked. also see 2018 July 12 indictment
    2016 October 12 6:46 AM -  (15 minutes after the above tweet to Trump Jr) Trump Tweet: “Very little pick-up by the dishonest media of incredible information provided by WikiLeaks. So dishonest! Rigged system!”
    2016 October 13 - Brian McCauley receives $3,000 from Michael T. Flynn (see FARA2 below pdf pg 12)
    2016 October 13 - Stone private Twitter: described himself as a defender of the organization and objected to its “ strategy of attacking me,” the Atlantic reported this year. WikiLeaks replied to Stone in a private message that“false claims of association” were being used by Democrats to undermine the group.  Stone answered: “You need to figure out who your friends are.”
    2016 October 14 - Trump Jr. Tweet: “For those who have the time to read about all the corruption and hypocrisy all the @wikileaks emails are right here: http://wlsearch.tk/,”
    2016 October - see 2017 June 25 WaPo article: Kushner firm’s $285 million Deutsche Bank loan came due just before Election Day
    2016 October 15 - FISA court gives permission for the Department of Justice to investigate two (unnamed) banks suspected of being part of the Kremlin’s undercover influence operation (Guardian April 13, 2017) & to investigate Carter Page (WAPO April 11, 2017), (BBC 2017 Jan 12)
    2016 October 17 - a critical date in the Trump-Steele dossier. Probably because of the 7 October official government charge of interference.
    2016 October 18 - Brian McCauley admits leaking info on HRC (but not that he received money) (New York Times:  Ex-F.B.I. Official Acknowledges Role in New Clinton Email Controversy)
    2016 October 21 - FISA authorizes First surveillance of Carter Page . (see Nunes memo 2018 February 2)
    2016 October 27 - The Hill: Trump aide reveals 'three major voter suppression operations' - was this the result of getting the DNC analytics?  See: 2018 July 18 TRMS DNC data - this may be a call to the Russians on who to target.  Note "The Hill " has published fake articles planted by the Trump campaign (Manafort).
    2016 October 30 - Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid writes an open letter to FBI Director James Comey, "In my communications with you and other top officials in the national security community, it has become clear that you possess explosive information about close ties and coordination between Donald Trump, his top advisors, and the Russian government,"
    2016 October 31 - Mother Jones: A Veteran Spy Has Given the FBI Information Alleging a Russian Operation to Cultivate Donald Trump - Fusion GPS (Wiki) was funded then by an unnamed  Republican client. Later the Democrats funded the dossier.
    2016 October 31 - Slate: Was a Trump Server Communicating With Russia? - Alfa Bank see 2018 July 11 TRMS - lawyer from Alpha bank nominated by Trump for DOJ job.
    2016 October 31 - WaPo: Harry Reid’s incendiary claim about ‘coordination’ between Donald Trump and Russia - 30Oct2016Letter.pdf - accuses Comey of violation of Hatch Act and not disclosing investigation of Trump-Russia (Comey later testified that the Clinton investigation was closing while the Trump-Russia investigation was just starting)
    2016 October 31 - NYT: Investigating Donald Trump, FBI Sees No Clear Link to Russia -Brooke's comment: It's legal for law enforcement to lie to suspects and the media. (this story was false - which had many ramifications)
    This is one week prior to the election.  It had a number of impacts.  Steele said it was because of this article that he leaked the dossier.  Why did Eric Lichtblau and Steven Lee Myers publish a fake news story just prior to the election? (see: 2018 October 9 TRMS)
    2016 November 3 - BuzzFeed: How Teens In The Balkans Are Duping Trump Supporters With Fake News - Fake news sites: WorldPoliticus.com, TrumpVision365.com, USConservativeToday.com, DonaldTrumpNews.co, and USADailyPolitics.com, ConservativeState.com, TheRightists.com, pope endorsed Trump, Mike Pence said Michelle Obama is the "most vulgar first lady we've ever had."
    2016 November 4 - WSJ: National Enquirer Shielded Donald Trump From Playboy Model’s (consensual) Affair Allegation - see: 2006 June Playboy-Aprentice, 2018 Feb 16 The New Yorker & WaPo) Supports dossier.
    2016 November 8 - article in The Hill by Michael Flynn: Our ally Turkey is in crisis and needs our support -
    2016 November 8 - (Trump's election day) Sergei Krivov (Wiki, assassination) died in Russian Consulate in New York - Mike Pence is running the transition
    Between election day and the inauguration Trump is not the president and has no authority to act as president.  So any negotiations with Russia are not legal.
    2016 November 8 & 9 - Maria Butina and Torshin email: decided to use WatsApp (secure) to discuss who should be Secretary of State. (see: affidavit 2018 July pg 13)
    2016 November 9 - Russian State Duma: "Three minutes ago Hillary Clinton admitted her defeat in US presidential elections and a second ago Trump started his speech as an elected president of the United States of America and I congratulate y ou on this". (from: House of Trump, House of Putin)
    2016 November 10 - at Oval Office Meeting Obama warrns Trump not to hire Michael Flynn. (NBC)
    2016 November 11 - abcnews: Donald Trump Replaces Chris Christie With Mike Pence as Head of Transition Team -
    2016 November 11 - Daily Caller: Trump’s Top Military Adviser Is Lobbying For Obscure Company With Ties To Turkish Government - Mike Flynn
    2016 November 11 - Maria Butina emails Torshin about Mitt Romney is likely SoS - how do "our people feel about that?  (see: affidavit 2018 July pg 14)
    2016 November 12 - Maria Butina holds birthday party at Cafe Deluxe.  Paul Erickson (Wiki) (see: affidavit 2018 July)
    2016 November 12 - Facebook: Konstantin Rykow: "It's time for great stories.... (I don't know how to verify is this is his facebook post?) based on The Plot to Destroy Democracy by Nance pg 275, note 13.

    Привет мир "It's time for great stories. I'll tell you about it now, as Donald Trump and I have decided to free America and make it great again. It took us two years and two more days.

    It began at night from 6 TO 7 November 2012

    It was the night of the presidential election. Sparring between Obama and Republican Romney. I was so crazy about Twitter, and I was entertaining myself by online broadcasting and commenting on the results.

    It's no secret that I always sympathizer Republicans (except Mccain) and drowning against the Democratic State Department. Professor Майкл Makfol this story remembers well and to his role in it we will come back.

    All right! To all normal people then it was obvious that if Barack Obama was given a second term, it would be a disaster for the world.

    At that time, we knew very well that in the arab spring, the case would not end and Ukraine, sanctions, Syria and so on. Obama's victory will be devastating not only for Russia, but also for the world.

    Unfortunately, Romney was unable to rip off the nefarious liberals at the time, and at 8:20 am admitted his defeat. He's just a weak politician. Nothing personal.

    To say that I was very worried.. is not to say anything. I was furious. Wrote angry tweets and sent curses.

    The only person on the entire network who fought to the end, did not want to admit and tolerate the results, was Donald Fredovič.

    He raised his plane in the sky and flew between New York and DC, calling on the world through his twitter - to start a march on Washington!

    Without a second thought, I wrote to him a replaj who sounded Russian like, " I'm ready. What do you have to do?"

    But.. There was no response from trump.

    I admit to being honest, I thought Donald was off the subject. I was even more upset and decided to go to bed.

    I couldn't sleep. I was. I was looking at the ceiling, and I had the terrifying images of the upcoming future in my head. Wars. Global terrorism. Coups D ' état.

    All of a sudden! There was a thin alert in DM.

    I opened the Ipad and I didn't believe my eyes.

    It was a message from Donald Trump. Actually, a picture. In the picture he sat in the chair of his jet, enthusiasm smiled and showed me the thumb of his right hand.

    To be continued...

    Part Two: 
    What was our idea with Donald Trump?

    In four years and two days.. It was necessary to get into the brain and seize all possible means of mass perception of reality. Ensure Donald's victory in the us President's election. Then create a political union between the United States, France, Russia (and other states) and establish a new world order.

    Four years and two days is a very long time, and the other is very small. Our idea was crazy, but feasible.

    In order to make things clear, it was necessary to "Digitize" all possible types of modern man.

    Donald has decided to invite the special science division of Cambridge University for this task.

    British scientists from Cambridge Analytica offered to make out of 5 thousand existing human psihotipov - the "perfect image" of trump's possible supporter. Then.. put that image back on all the psihotipy and thus find the universal key to anyone and everyone.

    The development eventually cost Donald Fredoviču $ 5 million. But! He got into his hands a secret super weapon.

    You know, who's been doing a p.r. ad.. will know what that means.

    Do you remember how much money the Clinton funds and "their supporters" spent on a campaign around the world? 5 times more than trump.

    But who invested in the network promotion 5 times more Hillary and became president? Also Donald Trump.

    It was only possible to upload these data to information flows and social networks. And we started looking for those who could do better than others.

    At the very beginning of Braves and romantic, there was not much. A couple of hacker factions, civil journalists from wikileaks and political strategist Михаил Kovalev.

    The next step was to develop a system of transfer of tasks and information so that no gébuha and nsa could burn it.

    How to make sure that even people do not speak each other's language, could exchange information faster than everyone, understand each other with completely, feel trends and influence their development?

    The programming of such a system has left for about a year. Another year left for tests and refinement. In the end. In a year with a small one, we set up the "Mediafilʹtr" to everyone who had been able to pull up our plot and opened the trump-2016. Portal on August 18, 2015

    August 19 At 9:00 me in DM came a message from Vladimir Volfovich.

    To be continued..." Konstantin Rykov
    2016 November 15 - email from Steve Calk to Paul Manafort: Subject: Candidate for SEC ARMY - see TRMS 2018 August 13 US v. P. Manafort exhibit 452
    2016 November 17 - Yahoo News: Michael Flynn, Trump’s reported pick for national security adviser, sat in on intel briefings — while advising foreign clients - (see: 2016 November 18 Letter)
    2016 November 18 - Letter from Elijah Cummings Ranking Member of House Oversight committee warning about retierd Lt. Gen. Michael Flynn.
    2016 November 19 - NYT: Trump Meets With Romney as He Starts to Look Outside His Inner Circle - People being considered fro SoS: Mitt Romney, Rudolph W. Giuliani & Kris Kobach - Trump does not know Tillerson and he's not on anyone's radar.
    2016 November 21 - "On Nov. 21, 2016, Emin Agalarov’s checking account received $165,000 from an account based in Russia belonging to his family. The following day, the account sent $107,000 to Corsy International, a company run by Kaveladze, the longtime Agalarov associate who attended the Trump Tower meeting." (2018 September 12 - Buzzfeed)
    2016 November 24 - (BuzzFeed 2017 June 19 - The Man Who Knew Too Much) - Dr Matthew Puncher died of multiple stab wounds, deemed a "Suicide". "Russian assassins are being allowed to operate in Britain with impunity, 17 current and former high-ranking intelligence officials on both sides of the Atlantic told BuzzFeed News."
    2016 November 24 - email From paul manafort, To: rick gates, Subject: DOD Service Secretaries: "Rick We need to discuss Steve Calk for Sec of Army.  I hear the list is being considered this weekend. P"  (see 2018 August 14 TRMS)
    2016 November 30 - email From Paul Manafort, To: Jared Kushner, Subject: 3 Recommendations for Major Appointments (see 2018 August 14 TRMS) "Stephen Clak His preference is Secretary of the Army."
    2016 November 30 - email from: Jared Kushner, To: Paul Manafort, Subject: 3 Recommendations for Major Appointments, "On it!" about getting S. Calk job in White House or ambassadorship
    2016 November 30 Maria Butina emails about Russian guest list for National Prayer Breakfast and that they are coming to establish a back channel of communication  (see: affidavit 2018 July pg 14) "Would Person 2 like to meet them?"
    2016 December (early) - "In early December, Kushner met in New York with the Russian ambassador to the United States, Sergey Kislyak, and he later sent a deputy to meet with Kislyak. Flynn was also present at the early-December meeting, and later that month, Flynn held a call with Kislyak to discuss U.S.-imposed sanctions against Russia. Flynn initially mischaracterized the conversation, even to Vice President Pence — ultimately prompting his ouster from the White House.  Kushner also met in December with Sergey Gorkov, the head of Vnesheconombank, which has been the subject of U.S. sanctions following Russia’s annexation of Crimea and its support of separatists in eastern Ukraine." (WaPo 2017 May 25)
    2016 December 1 - meeting in Trump tower with: Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan, Michael Flynn,Jared Kushner & Steve Bannon.  Since al-Nahyan did not notify the State Department of his visit, the intelligence community was paying a lot of attention. (see: CNN 2017
    2016 December 5 - Foreign Affairs: How Democracies Fall Apart - Why Populism Is a Pathway to Autocracy - "authoritarianization"
    September 2017 & Seychelles - 2017 January 11 & 12 & 2017 April 3) - WaPo 2017 May 26 - asked for secret communications channel with Russia
    2016 November 29 - book: Russian Roulette (memo by C. Steele): "...a senior official working at the Russian MFA (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) reported that a rumour is currently circulating there that US President Trump's delay in appointing a new Secretary of State is the result of an intervention by President Putin/the Kremlin.  The latter reportedly have asked that Trump Appoint a Russia-friendly figure to this position, who was prepared to move quickly on lifting Ukraine-related sanctions and cooperation ('security') in Syria.  The source assumes the Kremlin's reported intervention was in response to the possibility that Mitt Romney, view as hostile to Russia, might be appointed Secretary."  see 2018 March 14 TRMS
    2016 November 29 - Twitter: Alexander Torshin: "I've been interested in this bright figure for a long time. Already 7 years I LM NRA in which it lm very, very long ago... Was sure of his victory."
    2016 December 1 or 2 - Sergey Kislyak, Michael Flynn and Jared Kushner met at Trump Tower to see if they could use Russian secure communications to talk to people in Russia (WaPo 2017 May 26)
    2016 December 5 - Brian McCauley receives $15,000 from Michael T. Flynn (see FARA2 below pdf pg 12)
    2016 December 8 - NYT: Carter Page, Ex-Trump Adviser With Russian Ties, Visits Moscow - his company: Global Energy Capital
    2016 December 9 - John McCain (Wiki) passes a copy of the dossier to James Comey (Wiki)
    2016 December 9 - emptywheel: UNPACKING THE NEW CIA LEAK: DON’T IGNORE THE ALUMINUM TUBE FOOTNOTE - "...Russians hacked the Republican National Committee’s computer systems in addition to their attacks on Democratic organizations, but did not release whatever information they gleaned from the Republican networks."
    2016 December 10 - WaPo: FBI and CIA give differing accounts to lawmakers on Russia’s motives in 2016 hacks - (My comment: the FBI did not to lie about their then secret investigation in order to not tip off the guilty).
    2016 December (mid) - Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan (Wiki: MBZ) visited New York (without telling the Obama administration) and met with Michael T. FlynnSteve Bannon & Jared Kushner (Wiki).  This is before the meeting on 2017 January 11 & 12.
    2016 December12 - USA Today: Trump to nominate ExxonMobil CEO Rex Tillerson for secretary of State -
    2016 December 13 - NYT: Democratic House Candidates Were Also Targets of Russian Hacking - (TRMS)
    2016 December 13 or 14: Kushner-Gorkov meeting, VEB (see 2017 June 1 WaPo: Explanations....)
    2016 December 15 - Guardian: Czechoslovakia spied on Donald and Ivana Trump, communist-era files show -
    2016 December 19 - Andrei Karlov was shot in Turkey (Wiki)
    2016 December 19 - NYT: Austria’s Far Right Signs a Cooperation Pact With Putin’s Party - Heinz-Christian Strache (Wiki) met with Michael T. Flynn
    2016 December 20 - Petr Polshikov was shot in Moscow (Evening Standard UK)
    2016 December 21 - Egypt submitted a UN resolution about Israeli settlements to be voted on 22 Dec 2016
    2016 December 22 - a very senior member of the PTT directed Flynn to contact officials from foreign governments, including Russia, to learn where each stood and to delay the vote or defeat it.
    2016 December 22 - Flynn contacts Kislyak about the UN vote and asked that Russia vote against it or delay the vote.
    2016 December 23 Kislyak tells Flynn that Russia would not vote against the UN resolution.
    2016 December 26 - Oleg Erovinkin died (Wiki) - unnamed information source in the Donald Trump–Russia dossier, an aide to former deputy prime minister Igor Sechin (Wiki)
    2016 December - Sergei Mikhailov (FSB) bagged and taken from meeting (USA Today)
    2016 December - Michael T. Flynn meets with Heinz-Christian Strache (Wiki), leader of the far-right Freedom Party of Austria, at Trump Tower in New York.[62]
    2016 December - Ruslan Stoyanov (top manager for Russia's largest cybersecurity firm) bagged and taken from meeting (USA Today)

    2016 December 28 Wednesday - Obama Sancations Imposed on Russia for Russian involvement with election (Wiki: Russian Interference with 2016 election) including expelling 35 people and taking over Russian compounds in New York City, Maryland's Eastern Shore & San Francisco. Executive Order 13757 & modifies EO 13694 April 1 2015Taking additional Steps to Address the National Emergency with Respcet ot Significant Malicious Cyber-Enabled Activities (BC comment: Trump and his team had no prior knowledge of this.  The IC knew this would trigger responses and were waiting for them.  Probably more lines were tapped and we've only heard about theKislyak-Flynn calls.)

    The Entities & Individuals mentioned in EO 13757 (the U.S. Treasury page has more entities and individuals (?).
        1. Main Intelligence Directorate (a.k.a. Glavnoe Razvedyvatel'noe Upravlenie) (a.k.a. GRU); Moscow, Russia
        2. Federal Security Service (a.k.a. Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti) (a.k.a FSB); Moscow, Russia
        3. Special Technology Center (a.k.a. STLC, Ltd. Special Technology Center St. Petersburg); St. Petersburg, Russia
        4. Zorsecurity (a.k.a. Esage Lab); Moscow, .. Russia
        5. Autonomous Noncommercial Organization "Professional Association of Designers of Data Processing Systems" (a.k.a. ANO PO KSI); Moscow, Russia
        1. Igor Valentinovich Korobov; DOB Aug 3, 1956; nationality, Russian (Wiki) (current Chief of the GRU (Wiki)) enters US
        2. Sergey Aleksandrovich Gizunov; DOB Oct 18, 1956; nationality, Russian (cyberscoop Deputy Chief of the GRU)
        3. Igor Olegovich Kostyukov; DOB Feb 21, 1961; nationality, Russian (a First Deputy Chief of the GRU)
        4. Vladimir Stepanovich Alexseyev; DOB Apr 24, 1961; nationality, Russian (a First Deputy Chief of the GRU)

    2016 December 28 Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak calls Flynn (see 2017 November 30 DOJ) right after the announced sanctions.
    2016 December 29 - FBI: GRIZZLY STEPPE – Russian Malicious Cyber Activity - See 2016
    2016 December 29 - NYT: Obama Strikes Back at Russia for Election Hacking -
    2016 December 29: White House announcement Fact Sheet: Actions in Response to Russian Malicious Cyber Activity and Harassment -
    2016 December (updated) 29 USA Today: Obama sanctions Russian officials over election hacking -
    2016 December 29 - Michael T. Flynn 5 phone calls with Sergey Kislyak (Wiki) Russia's ambassador to the US (call recorded because Kislyak was being watched) talks about lifting sanctions (2017 February 9 WaPo, VOX 2017 Feb 20)
    2016 December 29 - Michael T. Flynn calls a senior Presidential Transition Team (PTT) member at Mar-a-Lago (McFarland?) to discuss what, if anything, to communicate to Kislyak about U.S. sanctions.  Flynn then called Kislyak and asked him to not escalate but only respond in a reciprocal manner. Flynn then called the PTT team member to report Russia would not take retaliatory measures. (see  2017 November 30 DOJ)
    2016 December 29 - (NYT 2017 December 2): "Ms. McFarland wrote, Mr. Flynn would be speaking with the Russian ambassador, Mr. Kislyak, hours after Mr. Obama’s sanctions were announced."
    2016 December 30 - Guardian: Obama expels 35 Russian diplomats in retaliation for US election hacking -
    2016 December 30 - NBC: Putin: Russia Won’t Expel U.S. Diplomats in Retaliation for Sanctions - he was expected to so this is news.
    2016 December 30 - Vladimir Putin releases statement indicating that Russia would not take retaliatory measures... (see 2017 November 30 DOJ)
    2016 December 30 - Trump Tweet: "Great move on delay (by V. Putin) - I always knew he was very smart!"
    2016 December 31 Kislyak calls Flynn confirming Russia would not retaliate (strange since Trump already knew)
    2016 December 31 Flynn talks to Presidential Transition Team (PTT) senior members about call with Kislyak (why?)
    2017 January 1 - Letter presenting the Iron Bridge Program to MBS (Newsweek: IronBridge.pdf) see 2019 February 19 Oversight.House.gov
    2017 January 4 - Donald F. McGahn II (Wiki), Trump transition lawyer, was informed that Mike Flynn was under investigation by the FBI (see 2017 May 17 NYT)
    2017 January 5 - Comey, Brennan & Clapper brief Obama about Kislyak calling Flynn the same day Obama announced the Russian Sanctions because of election meddling.  In a follow on meeting Obama met with Comey & Yates, Biden  & Susan Rice See: 2017 February 14 - WaPo, 2018 February 12 TRMS, 2018 February 8 - Senate Judiciary
    2017 January 5 - James Woolsey (see Sep 19 2016) quits Trump campaign (why the long time from 19 Sep?)
    2017 January 6 - Guardian: Trump meets with intelligence leaders after calling Russia case 'witch-hunt' -
    2017 January 6 - Office of the Director of National Intelligence releases report on Russian involvement in 2016 election (Wiki, ODNI) Russia was involved in election and helped Trump
    2017 January 6 - James Comey and other IC leaders give classified briefing to Donald Trump at Trump Tower on the IC assessment concerning Russian efforts to interfere in the election released the same day. (Comey's 7 page written statement)
    2017 January 9 - Andrei Malanin found dead in Greece (BBC) Russian Consul in Athens, Greece
    2017 January 10 - Sessions has run in with Al Franken at his hearing (WaPo 2017 March 1)

    2017 January 10 - Buzzfeed published the uncomfirmed "dossier "These Reports Allege Trump Has Deep Ties To Russia" (Wiki: Trump Dossier) dossier written by Christopher Steele, former MI6 agent (Wiki)

    Source-D and/or Source-E  “close associate of Trump.”: Siarhei Kukuts aka: Sergei Millian (2017 March 29 - WaPo: Who is ‘Source D’? The man said to be behind the Trump-Russia dossier’s most salacious claim - also there was a “well developed conspiracy of cooperation between [Trump] and Russian leadership,” claiming the relationship was managed for Trump by former campaign chairman Paul Manafort.
    2017 January 11 - Trump Twitter "Russia has never tried to use leverage over me. I HAVE NOTHING TO DO WITH RUSSIA - NO DEALS, NO LOANS, NO NOTHING!"

    Seychelles Meeting
    2017 January 11 & 12 meeting at Seychelles islands in the Indian Ocean: 
    Victor Podobnyy,
    Male1 (Carter Page) meet
    Erik Prince (founder of Blackwater (Wiki) & brother of Betsy DeVos - sec of Ed) -
    hosted by Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan (Wiki: MBZ)
    2017 April 3 Buzzfeed article.
    2018 September 26 - DailyBeast  Erik Prince,  Kirill Dmitriev,  George Nader,
    EDVA United States v. Rafiekian 1:18-cr-00457
    2019 March 19 - TRMS
    2017 January 12 - BBC: Trump 'compromising' claims: How and why did we get here? - 2 days after the dossier published "...money from the Kremlin going into the US presidential campaign.",
    2017 January 12 - WaPo; Why did Obama dawdle on Russia’s hacking? - "Flynn phoned Russian Ambassador Sergey Kislyak several times on Dec. 29, the day the Obama administration announced the expulsion of 35 Russian officials as well as other measures in retaliation for the hacking."
    2017 January ? Michael Flynn blocked a military action against ISIS because Turkey did not want it and was paying him (see 2017 May 17 Miami Herald)
    2017 January 15 - CBS: Face the Nation transcript January 15, 2017: Pence - Pence repeats the false Flynn story
    2017 January 17 - Carter Page communicated with Steve Bannon (phone & text) on this date after FISA approved surveillance on 2016 October 21  see: 2018 February 8 - Politico
    2017 January 17 - Global Chairman's Dinner
    2017 January 18 (8:30am) - breakfast at Trump International Hotel (DC):   Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Israel, Lithuania, Estonia, Denmark, Japan, Angola and others, Kairat Umarov, two senior Qatari officials, Pluvious Group, Devin Nunes, Michael Flynn, (see 2019 January 14 - DailyBeast)
    2017 January 18 - NYT: How Anna Wintour’s Longtime Party Planner Turned to Trump - Melania's friend paid $26 Million as one of the inauguration advisers.  What did she do?  (see 2018 February 16)
    2017 January 20 - Trump Inauguration (Friday)
    Alex Copson of ACU Strategic Partners attens inauguration and said "This is the best day of my life" because of a project Flynn had brokered was "good to go". "This is going to make a lot of very wealthy people."  See 2017 December 6 - NYT
    2016 January 21 - FISA authorizes Second surveillance of Carter Page . (see Nunes memo 2018 February 2)
    2017 January 24 - Michael Flynn (Tuesday) tells FBI that he did not talk to Russia about sanctions.  They discussed his "underlying conduct" which was problematic.
    2017 January 25 - NYT: Top Russian Cybercrimes Agent Arrested (in Moscow) on Charges of Treason - Sergei Mikhailov (a senior officer of the Federal Security Service, or F.S.B. which is implicated in US election hacking) bagged and arrested.
    2017 January 16 - USA Today: Reports: Arrested Russian intel officer allegedly spied for U.S. - In addition to Sergei Mikhailov two others were arrested in the same case: Major Dmitry Dokuchaev (an FDSB officer) and  Ruslan Stoyanov (a computer incidents investigation team leader at Kaspersky Lab (Wiki)),  "Russian media says the FSB believes Mikhailov tipped U.S. intelligence about Vladimir Fomenko and his server rental company "King Servers."
    2017 January 24 - FBI interviews Michael T. Flynn and Flynn lies to them about Russia involvement in the election (see 30 November 2017)
    2017 January 26 - Sally Yates goes to White House (Thursday) and warns Don McGahn (Wiki) that Michael Flynn was vulnerable to blackmail because of lying about sanction talk with Russians.  This is before the agents could write up their 302 reports (Wiki, Rachael Maddow).
    2017 January 26 - Alexander Kadakin (Wiki) - died in India 26 Jan 2017
    2017 January 27 - Sally Yates (Wiki) goes to White (Friday) House and aswers questions from Don McGahn about why there's a problem with Michael Flynn.
    2017 January 27 - Trump invites James Comey to a dinner in the Green Room at 6:30 pm by a phone call around noon the same day. (Comey's 7 page written statement)
    2017 January 27 - Derek Harvey, the Senior Director for Middle East and North African Affairs at the National Security Council (NSC) directed the NSC staff to add information about IP3’s “plan for 40 nuclear power plants” to the briefing package for President Trump’s call with King Salman.  (see 2019 February 19 Oversight)
    2017 January 28 - NPR: Trump Speaks With Putin In Saturday Phone Call - lasts 50 minutes: Reince Priebus, Mike Pence, Steve Bannon, Sean Spicer & Michael Flynn.
    2017 January 30 -Monday  Sally Yates orders DOJ (Wiki) to NOT defend the Trump's Muslim Ban executive order (Wiki).
    2017 January 30 - Trump fires Sally Yates (Monday), says because of her position on Muslim Ban.  But Michael Flynn continued on as National Security Adviser (Wiki) and sat in on classified meetings.
    2017 January 30 - NYT: Deutsche Bank Fined in Plan to Help Russians Launder $10 Billion - the $10 Billion was from VTB, $425 million fine to New York State’s main financial regulator, Russian mirror trading scheme, Many of these dollar-based mirror transactions flowed through the office of Deutsche’s New York bank,
    2017 February ?- Trump asks James B. Comey to shut down investigation of Michael T. Flynn (see 2017 May 16)
    2017 February ? - Marie Royce writes to Elliott Broidy asking for a position, with the top choice "assistant secretary of state for education and cultural affairs" - Trump nominated her 2018 January 3:Orange County Register.  also see: 2018 March 29 Newsweek
    2017 February 2 - White House National Security Advisor Announces NSC Senior Staff Appointments -
    2017 February 2 - National Prayer Breakfast (Wiki) attended by Maria Butina and a delegation from the Russian Federation.  (see 2018 July 17 affidavit, pg 15) (transcript of Trump's talk White House: "We have a lot of very distinguished guests.")
    2017 February 2 - John Eisenberg (White House attorney) reviews transcript of Flynn - Kislyak phone call in SCIF (Wiki) at DOJ as set up by Yates, but she was fired and so did not attend (See: 2017 December 20 FP, 2018 February 2 White House, 2018 August 29- NY Books)  This is prior to the Trump - Comey meeting.
    2017 February 2 -John Eisenberg reviews Flynn tapes (NYR 2018/08/29)
    2017 February 8 - WaPo asks Michael Flynn if he talked to Russia about sanctions, he answers: no.
    2017 February 9 - WaPo: National security adviser Flynn discussed sanctions with Russian ambassador, despite denials, officials say - Mike Pence says this is the first he heard about this. If true why wait 4 more days?
    2017 February 10 - Andrew McCabe brings Flynn phone records to the Situation Room, Later there's a Meeting in Situation Room (WikiSCIF) Mike Pence, Reince Priebus & Don McGahn review Flynn - Kislyak phone records.   THey then called Flynn and afterword told Trump F;lynn “had to be let go”  "...the president’s refusal to fire Flynn was inexplicable. Priebus, McGahn, and a White House attorney named John Eisenberg, who had listened to the intercepts six days earlier, were concerned that Trump was protecting Flynn, and speculated among themselves and with their subordinates that this might be because the president knew in advance of Flynn’s dubious, back-channel diplomacy with Russia, or had even authorized it.see 2018 September 25: NYR: Mike Pence, Star Witness
    2017 February 13 -WaPo: Justice Department warned White House that Flynn could be vulnerable to Russian blackmail, officials say -
    2017 February 13 - Michael T. Flynn resigned as National Security Advisor (Wiki).  It appears as if he stayed on in spite of the problems and was only fired after the WaPo broke the story.
    2017 February 14 - Trump asks James B. Comey in oval office meeting to shut down investigation of Michael T. Flynn See 2017 May 16 below)
    2017 February 14 - Trump when asked about Flynn and Russia says he will look into it.
    2017 February 14 Michael T. Flynn DIA suspends access to classified information.
    2017 February 14 NYT Feb 14, 1017: Trump Campaign Aids Had Repeated Contacts with Russian Intelligence  - Paul Manafort mentioned as was the ongoing FBI investigation. 2017 June 8: Comey says this article has many factual errors.  NYT Response 2017 June 8.
    2017 February 14 - After an oval office meeting Trump asks everyone to leave the room except James Comey (Jeff Sessions left the room) and asks Comey to let the Flynn matter go. (Comey's 7 page written statement)
    2017 February 14 - Mr. Trump and his advisers were in the Oval Office debating how to explain the resignation of Mr. Flynn, the national security adviser, the previous night. (see 2019 February 19 NYT) "that Mr. Trump had asked Mr. Flynn to resign."...“That sounds better,” the president said . . “Say that I asked for his resignation,” . .  But was thattrue? Mr. Spicer pressed. "say that I asked for his resignation, "Mr. Trump repeated." (lying to cover up something?) Note that Yates had warned the White House on 2017 January 27 that Flynn was compromised by the Russians. Also note that Trump never acted in response to Yates warning.
     2017 February 14 - WaPo: Flynn’s swift downfall: From a phone call in the Dominican Republic to a forced resignation at the White House -
    2017 February 15 - Andrew McCabe (Wiki), deputy director of the FBI after 7:30 AM meeting at White House was pulled aside and had a 5 minute one-on-one meeting with the White House Chief of Staff Reince Pribus (Wiki) about the NYT story yesterday (Feb 14).  McCabe (FBI) told Priebus (WH), ‘I want you to know story in NYT is BS," (Time, Feb 24 2017).  Why did he say that? This is improper as it suggests that the executive branch is trying to meddle in Judaical matter om violation of the separation of power part of the Constitution.
    2017 February 16 - Wikileaks: CIA espionage orders for the last (2012) French presidential election -
    2017 February 16 - WSJ: Spies Keep Intelligence From Donald Trump on Leak Concerns  -
    2017 February 17 - CNN: Harward says no to national security adviser role - "A friend of Harward's said he was reluctant to take the job because the White House seems so chaotic. Harward called the offer a "s*** sandwich," the friend said.  A Republican official told CNN that Harward made it a condition of taking the job that he could form his own team. In the end, he didn't feel that was the case."
    2017February 17 - Brittany Kaiser, a senior executive at Cambridge Analytica visits Julian Assange at the Ecuador embassy in the UK (see 2018 June 7 Guardian) This is long after the leak in July 2016 and after the election.
    2017 February 18 Reuters: U.S. inquiries into Russian election hacking include three FBI probes - Pittsburgh field office: identify the people behind breaches of the DNC, San Francisco: ID “Guccifer 2”, counterintelligence Washington: informants and foreign communications intercepts https://guccifer2.wordpress.com/
    2017 February 19 - WaPo: Amid Russia scrutiny, Trump associates received informal Ukraine policy proposal - Andrii V. Artemenko, Michael Cohen, Felix Sater - needed VTB Bank
    2017 February 19 - NYT: A Back-Channel Plan for Ukraine and Russia, Courtesy of Trump Associates - Michael D. Cohen, Felix H. Sater, Paul Manafort, Andrii V. Artemenko, Petro O. Poroshenko. "Mr. Cohen has a personal connection to Ukraine: He is married to a Ukrainian woman and once worked with relatives there to establish an ethanol business."
    2017 February 20 - Vitaly Churkin died (Wiki) cause of death needed further study,
    2017 February 20 - AP: On foreign policy, Trump still speaking campaign language - "According to one U.S. official, national security aides have sought information about Polish incursions in Belarus, an eyebrow-raising request because little evidence of such activities appears to exist. Poland is among the Eastern European nations worried about Trump’s friendlier tone on Russia." (see 2019 January 3 TRMS )
    2017 February 20 - VOX: The scandal over Mike Flynn's secret talks with the Russians, explained - see 2017 February 9 WaPo
    2017 February 21 - Forbes: Vladimir Fomenko, The Only Russian With Known Links To U.S. Political Hacking, Speaks Out -
    2017 February 22 - Senator E. Warren letter to Steven T. Munchin: Anthony Scaramucci acting as Trump "translator" at Davos in relationship to Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) which is sanctioned by U.S.
    2017 February 23 - Daily Beast: The Kremlin and GOP Have a New Friend—and Boy, Does She Love Guns -
    2017 February 23 - letter from Elliott Broidy offering to remove Russian sancetions for $26M covering 2017 to 2019 (Intercept: 2018 April 20)
    2017 February 24 WaPo: Trump administration sought to enlist intelligence officials, key lawmakers to counter Russia stories - Sen. Richard Burr (Wiki) and Rep. Devin Nunes (Wiki) made calls to the press.
    2017 February 27 - Edge Markets: TA Global all set to capitalize on the Trump factor -
    2017 February 28 - CNN: Meet the developer behind the newest Trump hotel - See 2018 March 10 CNN - Joo Kim Tiah, chairman of TA Global, scion of one of Malaysia's richest families Photo of (left to right) Eric Ivanka, Don Jr, Trump & Joo Kim Tiah
    2017 March (early) George Papadopoulos (Wiki) learns he will be on the Trump campaign foreign policy advisory panel.
    2017 March 1 - NYT: Obama Administration Rushed to Preserve Intelligence of Russian Election Hacking - "I did not have communications with the Russians"
    2017 March 1 - WaPo: Sessions met with Russian envoy twice last year, encounters he later did not disclose -
    2017 March 2 - DOJ: Attorney General Sessions Statement on Recusal - note the footnote "Updated March 2, 2017"
    2017 March 2 - Trump on USS Gerald Ford. male Reporter: "Should Sessions recuse himself from investigations into your campaign and Russia?  Trump: "I don't think so at all." female reporter:  When did yhou learn that Sessions spoke to the Russian ambassador?  Did you know during the campaign?"  Trump: "I don't think he should do that at all." female reporter: "When were you aware that he spoke to the Russian ambassador? Trump: "I wasn't aware at all."  (Sessions had decided in late February to recuse and Trump did no know on 2017 March 2)
    2017 March 2 - Jeff Sessions recuses himself from any investigations related to the 2016 presidential campaign, which would include any Russian interference in the electoral process. (WaPo, official statement) "Having concluded those meetings today, I have decided to recuse myself from any existing or future investigations of any matters related in any way to the campaigns for President of the United States."  NOTE: "campaigns" with an s on the end.
    2017 March 3 - Business Insider: It looks like another Trump adviser has significantly changed his story about the GOP's dramatic shift on Ukraine - J.D. Gordon "...amendment — which originally called for "providing lethal defense weapons"...ultimately watered down to "providing appropriate assistance" to Ukraine"
    2017 March 4 - Buzzfeed - A Former Trump Adviser Met With A Russian Spy -  Male1 (Carter Page) meet Erik Prince (founder of Blackwater (Wiki))
    2017 March 4 - WaPo: Despite early denials, growing list of Trump camp contacts with Russians haunts White House -
    2017 March 4 - Wilileaks: Hillary Clinton Email Archive - updated today
    2017 March 5 - Steve Bannon (Wiki) removed from National Security Council
    2017 March 7 - Michael T. Flynn files under the Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA) + Supplemental Attachment (FARA2). These filings contain false statements (See 2017 November 30 DOJ) & the article for The Hill was was supervised by officials from Turkey.
    2017 March 7 -  TRMS:  More Pieces Of Donald Trump Russia Dossier Check Out - (see 2017 January 10 - Buzzfeed) - Mikhail Kalugin (pg 22: misspelled Kulagin in dossier)
    2017 March 8 - Politico: Authorities looked into Manafort protégé; An associate of an ex-Trump campaign chairman is suspected of connections to Russian intelligence. - Konstantin Kilimnik
    2017 March 9 - Buzzfeed: Nigel Farage Just Visited The Ecuadorian Embassy in London - where Julian Assange, head of WikiLeaks,  is staying
    2017 March 9 - (CBSnews, Fox &Etc) Mike Pence and Sean Spicer say the first they knew Michael Flynn was lobbing for Turkey was from his FARA filing (a lie, see 2016 Nov 8 & 2016 Nov 11 + there's many more)
    2017 March 10 - The Hill: Sessions asks 46 Obama-era US attorneys to resign -
    2017 March 10 - Monica Crowley (Wiki) had problems getting into Trunmp's NSC because of Plagiarism today filed as agent (FARA) for Victor Pinchuk (Wiki)
    2017 March 10 - WaPo: Flynn told Trump team he might register as a foreign agent -
    2017 March 11 - NYT: U.S. Attorney Preet Bharara Says He Was Fired After Refusing to Quit - US Attorney in SDNY where international money laundering and financial crimes are tried.
    2017 March 13 - National Law Journal: Ex-DOJ Insider on Trump's Prosecutor Purge and Life After Government - Matthew Axelrod (Wiki) - "The transition team recommended to the incoming administration that they not get rid of the U.S. attorneys all at one time, and that recommendation was adopted.  It's not clear what changed and led the administration to get rid of everyone all at once." 
    2017 March 14 George Papadopoulos meets the "professor" in Italy.
    2017 March 20 - House Intelligence Committee open hearings (Wiki) testimony by James Comey and NSA director Michael S. Rogers (Wiki) testify
    2017 March 21 - George Papadopoulos WaPo announces he will be on the foreign policy advisory panel.
    2017 March 21 - Medium: Inside the secret Trump lobby that wants to profit from the break-up of Iraq: A network tied to Cambridge Analytica, Islamist insurgents, ExxonMobil and Koch convinced Trump to let go of Iraqi unity - "The locus of the activity is an organization called the Committee to Destroy ISIS (non functional web page: http://www.destroyisis.org/, Facebook, YouTube) set up in July 2016 by Sam Patten." provided financial support to the Hudson Institute . . .George Papadopoulos, a former research associate at the Hudson Institute from 2011 to 2015 . . . Patten’s biography on the website of his lobbying firm, Office of Sam Patten LLC, describes him as having worked with “one of London’s most innovative strategic communications companies to introduce new technologies and methodologies to US campaigns during the 2014 congressional cycle. This beta run of a cutting-edge electoral approach included taking micro-targeting to the next level. Currently this approach is being adopted by at least one major US presidential candidate.” Cambridge Analytica . . Oregon office of its parent company, SCL Group . . . Trump’s chief strategist in the White House, Steve Bannon, is on the board of Cambridge Analytica . . Michael Flynn — who advised Michael Pregent’s VATD — also served as an advisor to Cambridge Analytica’s parent company, SCL Group, to help expand its contracting work. Under Trump
    2017 March 22 - AP Exclusive: Before Trump job, Manafort worked to aid Putin - Oleg Deripaska (Wiki) -
    2017 March 22 - Mr. Gorokhov lawyer for Sergei Magnitsky "fell" out a window in his apartment building. He was to appear in court on 29 March 2017 & in New York in May on money laundering.   See S.284 & Nov 16, 2009 above
    2017 March 22 - AP: AP Exclusive: Before Trump job, Manafort worked to aid Putin -
    2017 March 22 - House Oversight Committee (Wiki) asks the director of the FBI (James Comey) for "..Flynn’s communications with and payments from Russian, Turkish, or other foreign sources, including the Kremlin-backed media outlet RT, between the time of his retirement in 2014 to the present." (2017-03-22.Chaffetz-EEC-to-Comey-FBI-re-Flynn.pdf)
    2017 March 23 - Denis Voronenkov (Wiki) shot and killed in Kiev, act of Russian "state terrorism"
    2017 March 24 - George Papadopoulos meets the "professor" and a female Russian national in London.
    2017 March 28 - House Intelligence Committee open hearing cancelled by Devin Nunes (Wiki) & he was removed from the committee - so Sally Yates testimony was not heard then.
    2017 March 29 - WSJ: Paul Manafort Received Loans From Another Former Trump Adviser’s Bank -
    2017 March 29 - Elizabeth Warren letter to Office Gov. Ethics: many pages of details re Mrs. Trump.
    2017 March 30 - BBC: Trump Russia dossier key claim 'verified' - see TRMS 2017 March 7 - "...Steele spoke of an "established operational liaison between the TRUMP team and the Kremlin… an intelligence exchange had been running between them for at least 8 years."
    2017 March 30 - Trump phones Comey in the morning and complains that the Russia investigation as “a cloud”. He asked what we could do to “lift the cloud.” (Comey's 7 page written statement)
    2017 March 31 - WaPo: Flynn offers to cooperate with congressional probe in exchange for immunity -
    2017 March 31 - CBS: FBI probing whether Trump aides helped Russian intel in early 2016 - going back to March 2015
    2017 April 2 Financial Times: FBI plans to create special unit to co-ordinate Russia probe - "central manager" - maybe the resources needed (see: 2017 May 5?) were for this?
    2017 April 3?5 - Jared Kushner meets with Ali Sharif Al Emadi in Qatar about refinancing the 666 Fifth Ave property, but the deal doe no happen. 2018March 2 Intercept)
    2017 April 3 - WaPo: Blackwater founder held secret Seychelles meeting to establish Trump-Putin back channel - see 2017 11 Jan for meeting.
    2017 April 3 - Buzzfeed: A Former Trump Adviser Met With A Russian Spy -  “Male-1” is Carter Page, Victor Podobnyy
    2017 April 3 - nra.lv: KNAB wanted to question Donald Tramp (Google translate) - Corruption Prevention and Combating Bureau (KNAB) investigators wanted to question the current US President Donald Tramp...whether he knows Latvian politician Ainārs Slesers... February 21, 2014,...
    2017 April 3 - NBC: CIA Director Pompeo Calls WikiLeaks a 'Hostile Intelligence Service' - Don Jr. still talking with WikiLeaks till June 2017 (for another 2 months, see 2019 January 29 TRMS)
    2017 April 5 - CBS: U.S. deports Russian spy who posed as bank employee - convicted spy Evgeny Buryakov - Victor Podobnyy,  Carter Page
    2017 April 6 - NYT: C.I.A. Had Evidence of Russian Effort to Help Trump Earlier Than Believed - TRMS 2017 Apr 10 - CIA saw links to the Trump campaign
    2017 April 7 - Pyotr Levashov/ joint US-Spanish arrest in Spain, hacker: mainly a criminal, but also supplied Russian government with data on specific individuals (WAPO) "...linked to America’s 2016 election hacking..." Kelihos botnet (Wiki) & Waledac botnet (Wiki, Rachael Maddow)
    2017 April 9 - NYT: Spain Arrests Russian Thought to Be Kingpin of Computer Spam -FSB  TRMS 2017 April 10 - arrested because FBI asked that he be arrested.  Has been extradited to the US.
    2017 april 10 - RT: Wife of Russian programmer 'suspected of cyber attacks on US' shares details about his arrest
    2017 April 10 - Buzzfeed: This Russian Hacker's Wife Says He Was Arrested For Being "Linked To Trump's Win" -
    2017 April 11 - Trump calls Comey  and asked what I had done about his request that I “get out” (Comey's 7 page written statement)
    2017 April 12 - AP Exclusive: Manafort firm received Ukraine ledger payout - This means that Paul Manafort not only was listed on the ledger (see: 2016 August 14) but actually received the payments.
    2017 April 12 - WAPO story that Paul Manafort will register as a foreign agent, but as of : 4/13/17, 4/14/17, 4/25/17, 5/10/17, 5/11/17, 5/12/17, 5/18.17 only the Kelly listing appears on the FARA web page, only a 1986 registration for Kelly, Scruggs & Heales alias Black, Manafort, Stone & Kelly Public Affairs Company.
    2017 April 13 - The Sun, UK -MOSCOW MONEY Ex-MI6 chief accuses Donald Trump of secretly borrowing from Russia to keep his property empire afloat during the financial crisis-
    2017 April 20 - Jason Chaffetz (Wiki) abruptly quits his position as Chairman of the House Oversight Committee (he signed the 21 April 2017 letter to the white house).
    2017 April 17 - DIA sends letter to General Flynn in 2014 at time of his retirement re: Constitution does not allow him to accept foreign money (Reuters)
    2017 April 21 - House Oversight Committee requests documents from White House (Oversight Committee Requests Documents on Trump Organization’s Treatment of Foreign Government Payments)
    2016 April 21 - FISA authorizes Third surveillance of Carter Page . (see Nunes memo 2018 February 2)
    2017 April 25 - Trump refuses House Oversight Committee request for Flynn documents. (The Hill)
    2017 April 26 - George Papadopoulos the "professor" in London where he learned that the Russians had "dirt" on then-candidate Clinton in the form of thousands of emails.
    2017 April 26 - NYT: Bribe Cases, a Jared Kushner Partner and Potential Conflicts - There's a case currently in New York courts relating to bribery in Guinea (Wiki) because a New York bank was involved.  Beny Steinmetz (Wiki), the owner of the company doing the bribes has been making real estate loans to Jared Kushner (Wiki).  This might be a violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (Wiki).  This has been know since the Nov 7, 2012issue of the Financial Times article: Guinea - What Lies Beneath.
    2017 April 28 - TRMS on Michael Flynn video - [See 2016 Nov 8 The Hill, 2016 Nov 11 Daily Caller, 2017 March 9] Jeff Sessions spinning story - "Why are they lying?"
    2017 April 28 - Senate Finance committee: Wyden Urges Review of Ivanka Trump's Trade Relations, Financial Conflicts of Interest -
    2017 April 30 - Trump interview with CBS - Transcript -re. General Flynn:  "PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP: Excuse me. I didn't realize this, when he went to Russia, it was 2015 and he was on the Obama clearance. When General Flynn came to us, as you now know, he already had the highest clearance you can have. I think the same clearance as the president of the United States would have. He had this really high clearance. And, by the way, they're so devastated because this only came up two days ago. "
    2017 April - "Eric Lichtblau left the Times, after fifteen years—in part, he said, because of the way that the Alfa Bank story was handled. (2018 October 15 New Yorker)
    2017 May 1 - US News: Trump: Next Supreme Court Nominee Will Come From Conservative List -
    2017 May 2 - Time: President Trump and Vladimir Putin Had a 'Very Good' Phone Call  - Putin asks Trump to meet with Laslatov and Kislack in the oval office.
    2017 May 5? - (NYT  2017 May 10) "Days before he was fired as F.B.I. director, James B. Comey asked the Justice Department for more prosecutors and other personnel to accelerate the bureau’s investigation into Russia’s interference in the presidential election."  Comey made this request to "...Rod J. Rosenstein (Wiki), the deputy attorney general, whose memo was used to justify Mr. Comey’s abrupt dismissal on Tuesday."
    2017 May 8 - Vanity Fair: Eric Trump Reportedly Bragged About Access to $100 Million in Russian Money - “We don’t rely on American banks. We have all the funding we need out of Russia.”
    2017 May 8 - private meeting between James Comey, Richard Burr (Wiki) and Mark Warner (Wiki), see TRMS 2017 May 25) - it may be a rumor that Comey asked for more resources prior to being fired.
    2017 May 8 - In testimony before the Senate Judiciary Committee says that "..the underlying conduct that general Flynn had engaged in was problematic in and of itself." She would not go into details because it's classified.  This is much more than Flynn lying.  James Clapper (Wiki) testified that when said that there was no investigation he was speaking from ignorance (he was not aware of the FBI investigation).  Dianne Feinstein (Wiki) asked both Yates and Clapper "..over the spring of 2016 multiple European allies passed on additional information to the United States about contacts between the Trump Campaign and Russians.  Is this accurate"?  (confirming the 2017 February 14 NYT story) Sally Yates: I can't answer that. James Clapper: "Yes it is and it's also quite sensitive". "The specifics are quite sensitive".  Mr. Lindsey Graham (Wiki): "General Clapper, during your investigation of all things Russia, did you ever find a situation where a Trump business interest in Russia gave you concern?  Clapper: "Not in the course of the preparation of the intelligence community assessment (see: 2017 January 6).  Graham: "Since"? Clapper: I can't comment on that, because that impacts ... .investigation".
    2017 May 8 - (Monday) shortly after James Clapper and Sally Yates testify before Senate, White House has news release: WaPo - U.S. poised to expand military effort against Taliban in Afghanistan - see the movie "Wag the Dog" (Wiki, IMBD).
    2017 May 8 - Trump Tweet: "The Russia-Trump collusion story is a total hoax, when will this taxpayer funded charade end?"
    2017 May 9 - Rod J. Rosenstein (Wiki) writes memo to Jeff Sessions making the dast to fire Comey.  This is the same day Trump tells Rosenstein and Sessions that he will fire Comey.
    2017 May 9 - Jeff Sessions fires James Comey (Wiki, Rachael Maddow, CNN:Jeffrey Toobin (Wiki)).  Jeff Sessions has already recused himself (see 2017 March 2) from anything to do with the investigation of Trump (and related to the Clinton campaign), so how can be fire Comey?
    2017 May 10 - Russians Sergei Lavrov and Sergey Kislyak meet with Rex Tillerson (Wiki) at the State Dept. and with Trump in the Oval Office.
    2017 May 10 - Senate Intelligence Committee (Wiki) has sent a request to the Financial Crimes Unit (Wiki: FinCEN) of the Treasury Department (Wiki) about information they may have about Trump or his associates. (TRMS: Donald Trump Fires James Comey As Investigations Into Russia Ties Heat Up)
    2017 May 10 -
    Senate Intelligence Committee subpoenas "...records of any emails, phone calls, meetings and financial dealings with Russians." from Michael T. Flynn. (NYT)
    2017 May 10 - TRMS:  New FBI Director Andrew McCabe Compromised By Serious Conflict - see: 2017 February 15
    2017 May 11 - NYT: In a Private Dinner, Trump Demanded Loyalty. Comey Demurred. - (TRMS 2017 Jun 8))
    2017 May 11 WaPo: Senate Democrats demand answers from Rod Rosenstein about involvement in Comey firing - Letter from Committee on Appropriations (Patrick Leahay & Jeanne Shaheen) to Rod Rosenstien asking about the increase of resources asked for by Comey for the Russian investigation.
    2017 May 11 TRMS: DOJ Won't Say If Jeff Sessions Is Recused On Paul Manafort - Paul Manafort has not registered with FARA (see 2017 April 12 above), so Rachael has been asking the DOJ if Jeff Sessions has recused himself from dealing with Paul Manafort and the DOJ has not answered.  Note that Sessions fired Comey even though he was recused from anything related to the Trump campaign or Clinton campaign which should include ManafortNixon was impeached for interfering with an investigation and Manafort may be the key witness against Trump.
    2017 May 11 - Vanity Fair:  Inside Trump's comming war with the FBI - "Another F.B.I. insider points out that while the media has focused on the investigation of possible collusion between Russia and Trump’s campaign, there are actually multiple inquiries in progress. “There’s also a cyber investigation, about the hacking and whether crimes were committed,” he says. “And then there’s the business side: Was there money laundering going on? Money from these Russian plutocrats that’s been washed through Trump’s real estate and businesses? That’s gotten overlooked, but Preet Bharara and the Southern District were supposedly looking into that.” They were until April anyway, when Trump and Sessions canned Bharara along with 45 other U.S. attorneys.
    2017 May 11 - WaPo: Here’s how the Russians might have snuck a recording device into the Oval Office - the day after he fired Comey, Trump had a meeting with Sergey Lavrov, Sergey Kislyak and a photographer from Tass where all U.S. reporters were excluded.  The visit to the oval office was at the request of Vladimir Putin (Politico).
    2017 May 11 - NBC interview Lester Holt: Trump says: "I was going to fire Comey…. And in fact, when I decided to just do it, I said to myself, I said, "You know, this Russia thing with Trump and Russia is a made-up story."
    2017 May 12 - movie: Get Me Roger Stone (Wiki, IMDB) -
    2017 May 12 - Letter from four senators to Michael E. Horowitz (Wiki), Inspector General of the DOJ asking for investigation into Comey's firing
    2017 May 12 - NYT:  Letter From Tax Firm on Russian Connections in Trump's Tax Returns - Russian money directly to Trump: 2013 Miss Universe $12.2 million, 2008 Florida Property profit of $54 million (95 - 41) &  misc money.
    2017 May 12 - WSJ: Financial-Crimes Monitor to Share Records in Trump-Russia Probe - TRMS - "One person said that without them, though, the committee wouldn't be able to reach a conclusion on whether there was collusion between Trump associates and Russia during last year's campaign."
    2017 May 12 - WSJ: Former Trump Advisor Paul Manafort's Bank Records Sought in Probe - Citizens Financial Group Inc. made the loan of $2.7M. . . " . .has spent and borrowed tens of millions of dollars in connection with property across the U.S. over the past decade,.."
    2017 May 15 - WaPo: Trump revealed highly classified information to Russian foreign minister and ambassador - “This is code-word information,” said a U.S. official familiar with the matter, using terminology that refers to one of the highest classification levels used by American spy agencies. Trump “revealed more information to the Russian ambassador than we have shared with our own allies.”  Thomas P. Bossert (Wiki) notified CIA & NSA.
    2017 May 15 - TRMS: Donald Trump Shares Highly Classified Info With Russian Officials, part 2 - See: 2017 April 3 WaPo and 2017 January 11 & 12 (part 2) WSJ: Shane Harris (Wiki),  David Priess (Amazon: President's Book of Secrets), Ned Price (Wiki)
    2017 May 15 - Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan (Wiki: MBZ) met with Trump at the White House.
    2017 May 16 - NYT: Comey Memo Says Trump Asked Him to End Flynn Investigation - 2017 Feb 14  in Oval office.  Obstruction of Justice (Wiki).  Comey's friend leaked his unclassified memo of the meeting (Comey's 7 page written statement)
    2017 May 16 - Steth Meyers: A Closer Look - Trump campaign clips of Trump on classified information.  "The only thing he got wrong was the president's name."
    2017 May 16 - NBC: Manafort Got $3.5M Mystry Mortage, Paid No Tax - Feds Subpoena Records for $3.5M Mystery Mortgage on Manafort’s Home - "Manafort's name and signature do not appear on any of the loan documents that are publicly available."  Funding from Spruce Capital (official web page) a co-founder is Joshua Crane (S3 bio) Note_2 who has done real estate deals with Trump and funded by Alexander Rovt (Wiki) who over donated to the trump campaign and had the balance refunded.  See: 2016 August 19
    2017 May 17 - DOJ Special Counsel's Office

    On May 17, 2017, Robert S. Mueller III was appointed by acting Attorney General Rod J. Rosenstein to serve as Special Counsel by the order below.

    Order 3915-2017
    2017 May 17 - WP:  Deputy attorney general appoints special counsel to oversee probe of Russian interference in election - Robert Mueller (Wiki) - Special Counsel's Office -
    2017 May 17 - NYT: Trump Team Knew Flynn Was Under Investigation Before He Came to White House -
    2017 May 17 - Miami Herald: Report: Flynn blocked military move Turkey opposed - "Days before President Donald Trump took office, incoming National Security Adviser Michael Flynn blocked a military plan against the Islamic State group that was opposed by Turkey, a country he had been paid more than $500,000 to advocate for, the McClatchy news service reported." Treason (Wiki)?
    2017 May 17 - Baily Beast: Donald Trump Talked Michael Flynn Into White House Job - and Wants Him Back in the Administration - Trump liked Flynn's book "The Field of Fight" (Amazon)
    2017 May 17 - Netflix streaming movie: Get Me Roger Stone (IMDB) - includes Paul Manafort (Wiki: Black, Manafort, Stone and Kelly) - the founders of "dirty tricks"
    2017 May 17 - NYT: Trump Team Knew Flynn Was Under Investigation Before He Came to White House - "Michael T. Flynn told President Trump’s transition team weeks before the inauguration that he was under federal investigation..."
    2017 May 18 - Reuters: Exclusive: Trump campaign had at least 18 undisclosed contacts with Russians: sources -  6 calls between Sergei Kislyak and Trump advisers, Viktor Medvedchuck (Wiki) is the only other Russian name mentioned.
    2017 May 18 - Politico: Pence stands by claim he didn't know about Flynn lobbying investigation - (TRMS 2017 May 19)
    2017 May 18 - NBC: Pence Creates PAC Ahead of 2018, 2020 Elections - "The Great America Committee" FEC Form 1 Filing, Cabell Hobbs (USA Today), Leadership PACs can accept individual donations of up to $5,000. Nick Ayers (Wiki) & Marty Obst to run the PAC.
    2017 May 19 - WaPo: Russia probe reaches current White House official, people familiar with the case say - "...a current White House official as a significant person of interest,..." rumored to be Jared Kushner (see: 2016 December ?? above)
    2017 May 19 - NYT: Trump Told Russians That Firing ‘Nut Job’ Comey Eased Pressure From Investigation - This will be the basis of an obstruction of justice (Wiki) criminal investigation.
    2017 May 19 - NYT: F.B.I. Once Warned G.O.P. Congressman That Russian Spies Were Recruiting Him - Dana Rohrabacher of California
    2017 May 20 - NYT:  House Inquiry Turns Attention to Trump Campaign Worker With Russia Ties - Michael Caputo  linked to Trump campaign, Gazprom Media, Roger Stone
    2017 May 22 - Michael Flynn refuses in writing to provide documents after  Senate Intelligence committee subpoena citing Fifth Amendment privilege for documents.
    2017 May 22 - WaPo:  Can Michael Flynn refuse to turn over documents to Congress? Yes — but he risks jail. -
    2017 May 22 -  Daily Mail: White House chief of staff Reince Preibus and top aide Steve Bannon desert Middle East trip and return to D.C. -
    2017 May 22 - WaPo: Trump asked intelligence chiefs to push back against FBI collusion probe after Comey revealed its existence - "during the 2016 election"
    2017 May 23 - Politico: FEC member urges escalated Trump-Russia inquiry - "...whether Russian agents paid for Facebook ads to spread damaging stories about Hillary Clinton..."
    2017 May 24 - abc: Classified Senate briefing expands to include Russian cyber firm under FBI scrutiny - "..Kaspersky Lab executives with previous ties to Russian intelligence and military agencies.."
    2017 May 25 - TRMS: Senate Intel Briefed On Cyber Firm With Odd Donald Trump-Russia Ties -
    2017 May 25 - WaPo:
    Jared Kushner now a focus in Russia investigation - "Kushner, who held meetings in December with the Russian ambassador and a banker from Moscow..." Sergey Kislyak, Sergey Gorkov ( head of Vnesheconombank)
    2017 May 25 - WSJ: How Alleged Russian Hacker Teamed Up With Florida GOP Operative -
    2017 May 26 - WaPo: Russian ambassador told Moscow that Kushner wanted secret communications channel with Kremlin - see 2018 March 26: TRMS - Kushner offered to make calls from Russian embassy
    2017 May 26 - NYT: Russian Once Tied to Trump Aide Seeks Immunity to Cooperate With Congress - Mr. Deripaska came to the United States eight times between 2011 and 2014 with government permission as a Russian diplomat . . although he could not get a visa as a business man because of his criminal connections. . . . buying high-priced Manhattan townhouses and a major stake in a Russian-language newspaper in New York.  For years, Mr. Putin complained about the State Department’s refusal to issue Mr. Deripaska a visa. “They give us nothing, explain to us nothing, and forbid him from entry,” Mr. Putin told the French newspaper Le Monde in 2008.
    2017 May 27 - Memorandum in Opposition, USA v. MANAFORT et al, No. 1:17-cr-00201-1 (D.D.C. Apr 23, 2018) - AppA, pg2: Storage unit 3013, 370 Holland Ave, Alexandria, VA searched.
    2017 May 31 - WaPo: Trump administration moves to return Russian compounds in Maryland and New York - see 2016 Dec 29
    2017 June ? - Trump meets with Ukrainian leader Petro Poroshenko - then Petro shuts down Ukrainian investigation into Paul Manafort, meeting setup by Michael Cohen for $400,000 see: BBC 2018 May 23
    2017 June 1 - Politico: Russia escalates spy games after years of U.S. neglect -
    2017 June 1 - Yahoo: How the Trump administration’s secret efforts to ease Russia sanctions fell short - (TRMS, TRMS) - Trump tried to lift sanctions as soon as he took office, but State Dept. staffers got Congress to start the process to pass a law to stop that from happening, then Flynn was fired and that took the heat off.
    2017 June 1 - WaPo: Explanations for Kushner’s meeting with head of Kremlin-linked bank don’t match up - Kushner-Gorkov meeting Dec 13 or 14 2016 Vnesheconombank (under U.S. sanctions since 2014), Sergey Gorkov,
    2017 June 2 - Guardian:  Nigel Farage is 'person of interest' in FBI investigation into Trump and Russia -
    2017 June 4 - NYT: Senate Backs Measure Limiting President’s Power to Lift Sanctions - 97 to 2 vote (Rand Paul & Mike Lee were the 2 votes against)
    2017 June 5 - NBC: Montenegro Joins NATO, First New Member in a Decade -
    2017 June 5 - Intercept: TOP-SECRET NSA REPORT DETAILS RUSSIAN HACKING EFFORT DAYS BEFORE 2016 ELECTION - spear-phishing emails to more than 100 local election officials just days before last November’s presidential election
    2017 June 7 - Senate hearing (NPR starts about 19 minutes in): Dan Coats (Wiki), Mike Rodgers (Wiki), FBI Dir Andrew McCabe (Wiki) & Rod Rosenstein (Wiki) all refused to answer questions about their conversations with Trump.  This in my opinion seemed to confuse Rachael Maddow (Trump Officials Refuse To Answer Senate Questions, Jun 7, 2017) where they can site no legal basis for refusing to answer questions from the Senate committee who's job it is to provide oversight of the intelligence community (neither classification nor the 5th amendment were cited as legal justifications for not answering).  But if Bob Mueller (Wiki) had issued a gag order because of his criminal investigation the result would be what happened here.  Note Reality Winner is in jail for leaking this information, but we all know it's true and the subject of the Mueller investigation - "Ler her go".
     2017 June 8 - Senate hearing with Comey (C-Span)  - Comey's 7 page written statement - (
    00:15:04) Comey said in his opening,  (00:17:13)"...The administration then choose to defame me and more importantly the FBI, by saying the organization was in disarray, that it was poorly led, that the workforce had lost confidence in it's leader.  (emotionally) Those were lies, plain and simple." - (00:25:52) Burr: "WHEN YOU READ THE DOSSIER, WHAT WAS YOUR REACTION GIVEN THAT IT WAS 100% DIRECTED AT THE PRESIDENT ELECT?  Comey:  "NOT A QUESTION I CAN ANSWER IN AN OPEN SETTING, MR. CHAIRMAN."
    2017 June 9 - Newsweek: Michael Flynn, Russia and a Grand Scheme to Build Nuclear Power Plants in Saudi Arabia and the Arab World - (see TRMS 2017 Dec 6) - X-Co Dynamics Inc./Iron Bridge Group (plan.pdf), - Syria, Iraq & Yemen (Nuclear Iran) [red] v. Egypt, Saudi Arabia & UAE [green] -  reactors and missiles and their launch facilities, i.e. it is a weapons plan, not an energy plan.  The "spent fuel" goes to Vladivostok, Russia!  Some of the source fuel comes from St. Petersburg, Russia.
    2017 June 12 - BuzzFeeed: Poison in the System - Alexander Perepilichny (Wiki) - "murder was sanctioned by Putin" (Part 1 of a series on Russian assassination)
    2017 June 13 - Susan Rice 1/20/2017 email declassified in part.  See 2018 February 8 - Senate Judiciary
    2017 June 13 - AP: Trump transition aide did not disclose role in Turkish work - Michael Flynn & Bijan Kian (Bijan Rafiekian), "Turkish-run Inovo BV",
    2017 June 14 - Axios: Trump under investigation for possible obstruction of justice - an expansion of the Muller probe
    2017 June 15 - Trump Tweet: "They made up a phony collusion with the Russians story, found zero proof, so now they go for obstruction of justice on the phony story. Nice."
    2017 June 15 - BuzzFeed: From Russia With Blood (Part 2 of a series on Russian assassination)
    2017 June 19 - BuzzFeed: The Man Who Knew Too Much (Part 3 of a series on Russian assassination)
    2017 June 19 - Newsweek: Michael Flynn, Trump’s Ex-National Security Adviser, is Target of New House Inquiry Related to His Dealings in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East -
    2017 June 19 - HuffPost: Michael Flynn Worked With Foreign Cyberweapons Group That Sold Spyware Used Against Political Dissidents - " It’s also unusual for former U.S. intelligence officials to work with foreign cybersecurity outfits."
    2017 June 20 - BuzzFeed: The Secrets Of The Spy In The Bag - (Part 4 of a series on Russian assassination) Gareth Williams (Wiki) died 2010 August 16- "... helping the NSA trace international money-laundering routes that are used by organised crime groups including Moscow-based mafia cells."
    2017 June 25 - WaPo: Kushner firm’s $285 million Deutsche Bank loan came just before Election Day -
    2017 June 27 DMP International, LLC, wholly owned by Paul Manafort registered with FARA.
    He could have filed just one form, but used many forms instead.
    Date Stamped
    Registration #
    Registrant Name
    Document Type
    Brooke's Comment
    06/27/2017 Registration Statement 6440 DMP International, LLC Registration Statement 6 pgs,  REg No. 6440
    Date and place of organization: June 29, 2011, Delaware
    employee: Richard W. Gates III
    Principal: Ukrainian Party of Regions
    06/27/2017 Supplemental Statement 6440 DMP International, LLC Supplemental Statement 11 pgs,
    "8/24/12    2500.00   Vernon Parker - Arizona State Office"
    14a Receipts:
    Date 2012
    Foreign Principal 
    Party of Regions 
    Services Rendered
    " $1,950,000.00
    " $700,000.00
    " $1,350,000.00
    " $535,000.00
    " $650,000.00

    " $620,000.00
    " $1,280,000.00
    " $400,000.00
    " $4,399,500.00


    06/27/2017 Supplemental Statement 6440 DMP International, LLC Supplemental Statement 11 pgs "Provided strategic counsel and advice to members of the Party of Regions regarding their interactions with U.S. government officials and other Western influential persons to advance the goal of greater political and economic integration between the Ukraine and the West.  Provided advice to the European Centre for a Modern Ukraine, which was also working for the same purpose. "
    "10/30/12 Email to Ambassador John Tefft regarding U.S. statement on Ukrainian elections. "
    "8/24/12 $2500.00   Vernon Parker - Arizona State Office"
    06/27/2017 Supplemental Statement 6440 DMP International, LLC Supplemental Statement 11pgs
    "1/20/2014   Party of Regions    Services Rendered   $500,000.00"
    06/27/2017 Supplemental Statement 6440 DMP International, LLC Supplemental Statement 11 pgs Jan - June 2012
    14a Receipts-Monies: "see attached"
    15a Disbursements-Monies: "see attached"
    15a Disbursements:
    First 6 months of 2012
    Fabrizio Ward Associates LLC
    Polling and surveys
    Rabin Strasburg LLC  (no internet presence)
    Media consulting services
    Last 6 months of 2012
    Date Contractor  Purpose  Amount
    Rabin Strasburg LLC
    Consulting services and expenses 
    Steven J. Brown
    Political and media outreach
    Rabin Strasburg LLC
    Consulting services and expenses 
    Fabrizio Ward Associates LLC
    Polling and surveys
    Rabin Strasburg LLC
    Consulting services and expenses 
    Steven J. Brown 
    Political and media outreach
    Christopher Spence
    Election data analysis
    Clear Dialogue LLC
    Election integrity consulting services
    Clear Dialogue LLC
    Election integrity consulting services
    Rabin Strasburg LLC
    Consulting services and expenses 
    Fabrizio Ward Associates LLC
    Polling and surveys
    Fabrizio Ward Associates LLC
    Polling and surveys
    Clear Dialogue LLC
    Election integrity consulting services
    Clear Dialogue LLC  (Ejaz Khan, director)
    Election integrity consulting services
    Fabrizio Ward Associates LLC
    Polling and surveys
    Steven J. Brown 
    Political and media outreach
    Steven J. Brown 
    Political and media outreach

    Total for the year
    Travel: 648,840.83 + 769928.53 = 1,418,769.36 for 2012
    Meals/Living Exp: 88404.45 + 99812.72 = 188,217.17 for 2012
    Total Travel & Meals/Living = 1,606,986.53
    Grand Total all expenses:  2,239741.97
    06/27/2017 Ukrainian Party of Regions 6440 DMP International, LLC Exhibit AB 4pgs.
    "Provided strategic counsel and advice to members of the Party of Regions regarding certain interactions with U.S. government officials and other Western influential persons to advance the goal of greater political and economic integration between the Ukraine and the West.  "
    06/27/2017 Gates III, Richard W. 6440 DMP International, LLC Short-Form 3pgs, Rick Gates  "see attached"

    06/27/2017 Supplemental Statement 6440 DMP International, LLC Supplemental Statement 12 pgs, Jan to June 2013   Reg No. 6440
    Disbursements in 2013, (my summary)
    Fabrizio Ward Associates LLC
    Polling and surveys
    Steven J. Brown  (IMDB)
    Political and media outreach
    Konstantin Kilimnik  (Politico 2017 Mar 8)
    Professional services and administrative overhead for Kiev operations

    Total for 2013

    Travel & Meals/Living Exp total for 2013: $870,194.05

    06/27/2017 Manafort, Paul J. 6440 DMP International, LLC Short-Form 3 pgs,
    11: "Focused on electing Party of Regions' candidates at the national and regional levels in the Ukraine by implementing pro-democratic campaign activities, engaging in party building activities, developing a party platform and political agenda, and implementing election planning, election integrity, and international election monitoring programs.  Provided strategic counsel and advice to members of the Party of Regions regarding their interactions with U.S. government officials and other Western influential persons to advance the goal of greater political and economic integration between the Ukraine and the West.  Communicated with the U.S. Embassy in Kiev regarding developing events in the Ukraine. "
    12: Provided strategic counsel and advice to members of the Party of Regions regarding their interactions with U.S. government officials and other Western influential persons to advance the goal of greater political and economic integration between the Ukraine and the West. 
    06/27/2017 Exhibit C 6440 DMP International, LLC Exhibit C DMP International LLC Operating Agreement written 1 Sep 2011.
    Class A Members: Paul J. Manafort & Richard W. Gates.
    Membership Interest:  Paul J. Manafort 100%

    2017 June 27 - letter from Alex Copson to Tom Cochran ACU Strategic Partners, re: Letter from Ranking Member Cummings . . .
    2017 June 29 - WSJ:  GOP Operative Sought Clinton Emails From Hackers, Implied a Connection to Flynn - If they could get the emails from Clinton's private server (they did not) then they would get them to Flynn and/or his son.  Peter Smith died of apparent suicide. 
    2017 June 30 - Lawfare: The Time I Got Recruited to Collude with the Russians - Officials identified in the document include: Steve Bannon, Kellyanne Conway, Sam Clovis, Lt. Gen. Mike Flynnd (related to the WSJ article 2017 June 29 GOP Operative..., John Szobocsan, “KLS Research”, Trump Campaign, Steve Bannon, Kellyanne Conway, Sam Clovis, Lt. Gen. Flynn and Lisa Nelson.
    2017 July 6 - Trump meets with Putin at G20.
    2017 July 6 - NYT: Hackers Are Targeting Nuclear Facilities, Homeland Security Dept. and F.B.I. Say -DHS & FBI (see 2018 March 15 TRMS) Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation,
    2017 July 7 - WaPo: Manafort offered to give Russian billionaire
    2017 July 7 - TRMS: Vladimir Putin Regime Marked By Graft And Corruption Part 1 of 4 - (see BuzzFeed 2017 June 12 above), Boris Nemtsov (Wiki) testified before the US Foreign Relations Subcommittee (SD-419) regarding the  Magnitsky Act (see: 2012 Nov/Dec).
    2017 July 8 - NYT: Trump Team Met With Lawyer Linked to Kremlin During Campaign - 2 days after Trump & Putin meet.
    2017 July 9 - Mark Corallo, Hope Hicks & Trump in conference call (See: TRMS 2018 February 2018) Hicks: "the emails will never get out".
    2017 July 10 - NYT:  Russian government sought to aid Trump’s candidacy, according to email seeking meeting - See 2016 June 9 above.
    2107 July 12 - McClatchy: Trump-Russia investigators probe Jared Kushner-run digital operation - looking for US help in what to do with Russian bots
    2017 July 12 - NYT: Trump Campaign Is Sued Over Leaked Emails Linked to Russians - 46 page Invasion of Privacy filing papers - item 12. is related to Donald Jrs. "If it's what you say I love it especially later in the summer." response.
    2017 July 12 - WSJ: Russian Officials Overheard Discussing Trump Associates Before Campaign Began -
    2017 July 12 - McClatchy: Trump-Russia investigators probe Jared Kushner-run digital operation -
    2017 July 13 - ChicagoTribune: Peter W. Smith, GOP operative who sought Clinton's emails from Russian hackers, committed suicide, records show - "Smith told the Journal he believed the missing emails might have been obtained by Russian hackers."
    2017 July 13 - Bloomberg: Trump's Two Nights of Parties in Moscow Echo Years Later - Details on 2013 Trump trip to Russia for beauty pagent
    2017 July 13 -New Repulic: Trump’s Russian Laundromat - David Bogatin, Semion Mogilevich - photo of Mr & Mrs Trump in WInter Palace on trip funded by Russia. “One thing led to another,” he wrote, “and now I’m talking about building a large luxury hotel, across the street from the Kremlin, in partnership with the Soviet government.” quote from The Art of the Deal. Vyachelsav Kirillovich Ivankov, Felix Komarov, Eduard Nektalov , Tevfik Arif, Bayrock, Semion Mogilevich, Felix Sater,  
    2017 July 14 - TRMS: Donald Trump Jr Russian Meeting Story Unpacking Like A Nesting Doll - Pussy Riot song Chaika (Wiki) - based on Yury Chaika; Prosecutor General of Russia - i.e. the man mentioned in the Trump Jr. email as the Crown Prosecutor of Russia.  See 2017 July 14 WSJ article connecting 
    2017 July 14 - WSJ: Russian Lawyer Whom Trump Jr. Met Says She Was in Contact With Top Russian Prosecutor  - Natalia Veselnitskaya acknowledges meeting with Yury Chaika (see 2014 February 14 - NYT Pussy Riot)
    2017 July 14 - Bloomberg: Russia Probe Delayed After Radio Tirade - Roger Stone upset because of a delay, Michael R. Caputo (Wiki) to testify in closed House hearing today (July 14)
    2017 July 19 - NYT: Big German Bank, Key to Trump’s Finances, Faces New Scrutiny - Deutsche Bank’s private wealth management unit
    2017 July 19 - NYT: Manafort Was in Debt to Pro-Russia Interests, Cyprus Records Show - "...he had been in debt to pro-Russia interests by as much as $17 million before he joined Donald J. Trump’s presidential campaign in March 2016." "In a 2015 court complaint, Mr. Deripaska claimed that Mr. Manafort and his partners owed him $19 million related to a failed investment in a Ukrainian cable television business."
    2017 July 21 - WaPo: In revised filing, Kushner reveals dozens of previously undisclosed assets - this may be the basis of the White House investigation of the Kushners and stopping his security clearance. McMaster headed meetings about the Kushners, maybe related to his firing?
    2017 July 22 - NYT: Congress Reaches Deal on Russia Sanctions, Setting Up Tough Choice for Trump - will Trump veto or sign? includes sanctions on Iran and North Korea,
    2017 July 24 - Senate: passes "Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (Wiki: CAATSA)" by 98 - 2 vote.
    2017 July 26 - WaPo 2017 Aug 9: FBI conducted predawn raid of former Trump campaign chairman Manafort’s home
    2017 July 26 - TRMS: Donald Trump DoJ Pick Recently Represented Putin-Aligned Russian Bank - references the below stories:
    2017 July 19 - NYT: Manafort Was in Debt to Pro-Russia Interests, Cyprus Records Show -
    2017 July 10 - Politico: NYT rejects Manafort's retraction request (about 2017 July 19 article above)
    2017 July 25 - NYT: Prosecutors: Some Bribes in Oligarch Case Earmarked for US -
    2017 July 26 - NBC: DOJ: Ex-Manafort Associate Firtash Is Top-Tier Comrade of Russian Mobsters -
    The above stories make the following look very bad:
    2017 July 24 - NYT: Justice Dept. Nominee Says He Once Represented Russian Bank - (out of chronological order)
    2017 July 27 - George Papadopoulos arrested at Dulles International Airport.
    2017 July 27 - William Browder (the heart of the Magnitsky Act) testifies before the Senate Judiciary Committee "Oversight of the Foreign Agents Registration Act and Attempts to Influence U.S. Elections”
    2017 July 28 - BuzzFeed "Everyone thinks he was whacked"   (Part 4 of a series on Russian assassination)  Mikhail Lesin found in Dupont Circle hotel room Nov. 5, 2015
    2017 July 30 - NYT: Putin, Responding to Sanctions, Orders U.S. to Cut Diplomatic Staff by 755 -
    2017 August 2 - Politico: Tillerson spurns $80 million to counter ISIS, Russian propaganda - (see TRMS 2018 March 5)
    2017 August 2 - DOJ: Russian Probe: Rod J. Rosenstein Memo to Special Counsel Robert Mueller – “Re: The Scope of Investigation and Definition of Authority”
    2017 August 3 - Michael T. Flynn Financial Disclosure (modified) - ACU Strategic Partners - Consultant 4/2015 to 6/2016 (i.e. during the transition) Gifts & Travel Reimb = 0
    2017 August 8 - abc: Trump signed letter of intent for Russian tower during campaign, lawyer says - Michael Cohen, Dmitry Peskov, Felix Sater, Donald Trump Jr., "Sater writes, “I know how to play it, and we will get this done. Buddy, our boy can become president of the USA, and we can engineer it.” “I will get all of Putins team to buy in on this.”
    2017 August 9 - BuzzFeed: This Is What European Diplomats Really Think About Donald Trump - he will do whatever is opposite to Obama
    2017 August 17 - The New Yorker: Trump’s Business of Corruption -
    2017 August 22 - Glenn simpson (Fusion GPS) testifies before Senate Judiciary com (see 2018 January 9 - Dianne Feinstein)
    2017 August 23 - CNN: Ambassador to Sudan is fourth Russian diplomat to die since January - Migayas Shirinskiy 54, symptoms of an acute heart attack
    2017 August 24 - CNN: Nine months, nine prominent Russians dead - since the election: Migayas Shirinskiy, Denis Voronenkov, Vitaly Churkin, Alexander Kadakin, Andrey Malanin, Oleg Erovinkin, Andrei Karlov, Petr Polshikov, Sergei Krivov, Nikolai Gorokhov
    2017 August 25 - WaPo: Trump goes back to his professional wrestling days -
    2017 August 28 - NYT: Trump Associate Boasted That Moscow Business Deal ‘Will Get Donald Elected’ - Felix Sater, Putin controlls VTB Bank which was lined up to finance Trump Tower Moscow.
    2017 August 28 - TRMS: Donald Trump Sought Moscow Business Deal While Campaigning For President -
    2017 August 29 - CNN:
    Special counsel subpoenas Manafort's former attorney and spokesman - Melissa Laurenza & Jason Maloni; lawyers are not exempt from the SCO's office, see 2018 February 20 guilty plea.
    2017 August 30 - WaPo: Kremlin says it got the Trump Tower email but didn’t respond - Dmitry Peskov, Michael Cohen, (see: 2018 November 29 SCO)
    2017 August 31 - NYT: In Retaliation, U.S. Orders Russia to Close Consulate in San Francisco -
    2017 September ? - VP of Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) commits suicide over scandal.  see: 2017 Oct 30 Korea Herald
    2017 September 8 - WaPo:
    Mueller gives White House names of 6 aides he expects to question in Russia probe - Hope Hicks, Sean SpicerReince PriebusDon McGahn, James Burnham & Josh Raffel.
    2017 September 8 - WaPo: Inviting Malaysia's prime minister to the White House is a terrible idea - see TRMS 2018 March 9
    2017 September 12 - NYT: Hope Hicks Is Formally Named White House Communications Director - Wiki
    2017 September 13 - NBC: Mike Flynn’s Son Is Subject of Federal Russia Probe - Flynn's son also promoted the fake Pizza Gate conspiracy theory (Wiki)
    2017 September 13 - WSJ: Flynn Promoted Nuclear-Plant Project While in White House - Flynn Intel Group
    2017 September 14 - CNN: Exclusive: Rice told House investigators why she unmasked senior Trump officials - Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan,
    2017 September 14 - TRMS: New Revelations Deepen NSA Mike Flynn Legal Jeopardy -
    2017 September 16 - AP: Still no charity money from leftover Trump inaugural funds - when asked they said "no comment" to Rachael Maddow
    2017 September 17 - NYT: Trump Lawyers Clash Over How Much to Cooperate With Russia Inquiry -
    2017 September 20 - WaPo:  Manafort offered to give Russian billionaire ‘private briefings’ on 2016 campaign - (see 2016 July above)
    2017 September 20 - NYT: Mueller Seeks White House Documents Related to Trump’s Actions as President - ...foreign policy team: Carter Page, J. D. Gordon, Keith Kellogg, George Papadopoulos, Walid Phares and Joseph E. Schmitz.
    2017 September 21 - Axios: Another potential Mueller honey pot: Spicer's notebooks -
    2017 September 21 - TRMS: President Donald Trump Staffs Government With Political Favors -
    2017 September 21 - TRMS: The Path From Paul Manafort To Robert Mueller -
    2017 September 21 - NYT: